Alzyo | Tuesday 25 October 2022

 EXAMINATION NOTICE NO.06/2022-IFoS                                              DATED 02.02.2022







All candidates (male/female/transgender) are requested to carefully read the Rules of Indian Forest Service Examination notified by the Government (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change) and this Notice of Examination derived from these Rules.

Candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfill all eligibility conditions for admission to the Examination. Their admission at all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions. Mere issue of Admission Certificate to the candidate will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission.   Verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents is taken up only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/Personality Test. The Commission takes up verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/ Personality Test.


Candidates are required to apply Online only by using the  Brief instructions are  for filling up the online Applications Form have been given  in  Appendix-II(A).    Detailed instructions for filling up online applications are available on the above mentioned   

2.1 The Commission has introduced the facility of withdrawal of Application for those candidates who do not want to appear for the Examination. In this regard, Instructions are mentioned in Appendix-II(B) of this Examination Notice.

2.2 Candidate should have details of one Photo ID Card viz. Aadhaar Card/Voter Card/PAN Card/Passport/Driving Licence/Any other Photo ID Card issued by the State/Central Government. The details of this Photo ID Card will have to be provided by the candidate while filling up the online application form. The candidates will have to upload a scanned copy of the Photo ID whose details have been provided in the online application by him/her.   This Photo ID Card will be used for all future referencing and the candidate is advised to carry this Photo ID Card while appearing for Examination/Personality Test.


The Online Applications can be filled up to 22ND February, 2022 till 18.00 Hours.

4. The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card three weeks before the commencement of the

examination. The e-Admit Card will be made available in the UPSC website [http://www.upsconline. nic.in.] for downloading by candidates. No Admission Certificate will be sent by post. All the applicants are required to provide valid active E-Mail I.D. while filling up Online Application Form as the Commission may use electronic mode for contacting them at different stages of examination process.


Candidates should  note  that  there  will  be  penalty (Negative Marking) for  wrong  answers  marked  by  a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.

6. For both writing and marking answers in the OMR sheet [Answer Sheet], candidates must use black ball pen only. Pens with any other colours are prohibited. Do not use Pencil or Ink pen.  Candidates are further advised to read carefully the "Special Instructions" contained in Appendix-III of the Notice.


In case of any guidance/information/clarification regarding their applications, candidature etc. candidates can contact  UPSC's  Facilitation  Counter  near  'C'  Gate  of  its  campus  in  person  or  over  Telephone  No.  011-

23385271/011-23381125/011-23098543 on working days between 10.00 hrs. and 17.00 hrs.

8. Mobile Phones Banned:

(a)The use of any mobile phone (even in switched off mode), pager or any electronic equipment or programmable device or storage media like pen drive, smart watches etc. or camera or blue tooth devices or any other equipment or related accessories either in working or switched off mode capable of being used as a communication device during the examination is strictly prohibited. Any infringement of these instructions shall entail disciplinary action including ban from future examinations.

(b) Candidates are advised in their own interest not to bring any of the banned items including mobile

phones/pagers to the venue of the examination, as arrangement for safe-keeping cannot be assured. Commission will not be responsible for any loss in this regard.

9. Candidates are advised not to bring any valuable/costly items to the venue of the examination, as safe-

keeping of the same cannot be assured. Commission will not be responsible for any loss in this regard. CANDIDATES  ARE  REQUIRED  TO  APPLY  ONLINE  ONLY.  NO  OTHER  MODE  IS  ALLOWED  FOR SUBMISSION OF APPLICATION. 

No.13/2/2021-E.I(B) : The Union Public Service Commission will hold a Screening Test for selection to Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination, 2022 through Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2022 which will be held on

05th  June, 2022, in accordance with the Rules published by the Ministry of

Environment, Forests and Climate Change in the Gazette of India dated the

02nd February, 2022.

(A) The Preliminary Examination will be held at the following Centers:

The centres and the date of holding the examination as mentioned above are liable to be changed at the discretion  of the Commission.  Applicants  should note that there will be a ceiling on the number of candidates allotted to each of the Centres, except Chennai,  Dispur, Kolkatta and Nagpur.   Allotment  of Centres will be on the "first- apply-first allot" basis, and once the capacity of a particular Centre is attained, the same will be frozen. Applicants, who cannot get a Centre of their choice due to ceiling, will be required to choose a Centre from the remaining ones.   Applicants are, thus, advised that they may apply early so that they could get a Centre of their choice.

NB: Notwithstanding  the aforesaid provision, Commission  reserves the right to
change the Centres at their discretion if the situation demands.
All the Examination Centres for CS(P) 2022 Examination will cater to examination for Low Vision Candidates in their respective centres. Candidates admitted to the examination will be informed of the time table and place or places of examination.
The candidates should note that no request for change of centre will be entertained.

The Indian  Forest  Service  Examination  will consist  of two successive  stages  (vide
Appendix I Section-I below).

(i)  Civil  Services  (Preliminary)   Examination   (Objective  type)  for  the  selection  of candidates for the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination; and
(ii) Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection
of candidates for the Indian Forest Service. 

Applications  are now invited  for the Preliminary  Examination  only.  Candidates who will be declared by the Commission to have qualified for admission to the Indian Forest  Service  (Main)  Examination  will  have  to  apply  again  and  submit  on-line Detailed  Application  Form-I  [DAF-I]  along  with scanned  documents/certificates  in support  of date of birth,  category  {viz. SC/ST/OBC(without  OBC  Annexure)/EWS [Economically  Weaker  Sections]  (with  EWS  Annexure)/PwBD/Ex-Serviceman} and educational qualification with required Examination Fee.  Any delay in submission of  DAF-I  or  documents  in  support  beyond  the  prescribed  date  will  not  be allowed  and will lead to cancellation  of the candidature  for the IFoS Exam,
The  candidates  who  are  declared  to  have  qualified  Indian  Forest  Service (Main)   Examination   will   be   required   to   mandatorily   indicate   order   of preferences of Zones/Cadres  in the on-line Detailed Application Form-II (DAF- II),   before   the   commencement   of  Personality   Tests   (Interviews)   of  the examination. With this Form, a candidate will also be required to upload documents/certificates  for higher education, achievements  in different fields, service experience,  OBC Annexure (for OBC category only) EWS Annexure (for EWS category only), etc.  Any delay in submission of DAF-II or documents in support  beyond  the  prescribed  date  will  not  be  allowed  and  will  lead  to cancellation of the candidature for the IFoS Exam, 2022.
The Main Examination  is likely to be held in November,  2022.   The Main
Examination will be held on the following Centres :
Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi, Dispur (Guwahati), Hyderabad, Kolkata, Lucknow, Nagpur, Port Blair and Shimla.

2. The number of vacancies to be filled on the results of the examination is expected to be approximately 151. The number of vacancies is liable to alteration. Reservation will be made for candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward   Classes,   Economically   Weaker   Section   and  Person   with  Benchmark Disability Categories in respect of vacancies as may be fixed by the Government.

Note: As per the information received from the Ministry of Environment, Forests and  Climate  Change,  two  vacancies  have  been  kept  reserved  for  Low Vision category, two vacancies have been kept reserved for Partially Deaf category  and  three  vacancies  (one  backlog  vacancy)  have  been  kept reserved for Locomotor disability (sub-category  : Leprosy cured and Acid attack). However the vacancies indicated are liable to further alteration.

As  per  the  decision  taken  by  the  Government  for  increasing  the  access  of unemployed to job opportunities, the Commission will publically disclose the scores of the candidates (obtained in the Written Examination  and Interview/Personality  Test) through  the public  portals.   The disclosure  will be made  in respect  of only  those candidates  who will appear  in the Interview/Personality  Test for the Indian  Forest Service  Examination   and  are  not  finally  recommended   for  appointment.     The information shared through this disclosure scheme about the non-recommended candidates may be used by other public and private recruitment agencies to appoint suitable candidates from the information made available in the public portal.

Candidates will be required to give their options at the time of Interview/Personality  Test, while acknowledging  the e-summon letter mailed to them for interview.   A candidate may opt out of the scheme also and in that case his/her details will not be published by the Commission.
Besides sharing of the information of the non-recommended  candidates for the examinations  conducted  by the Commission,  the Commission  will not assume  any responsibility  of liability for the method and manner in which information related to candidates  who appear at the Commission’s  Examinations/Selections  is utilized by other private of public organizations.

A candidate must be either :- (a) A citizen of India, or
(b) a subject of Nepal, or
(c) a subject of Bhutan, or 
(d)  a Tibetan  refugee  who  came  over  to India  before  1st  January,  1962  with  the intention of permanently settling in India, or
(e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Srilanka, East
African  countries  of  Kenya,  Uganda,  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania,  Zambia, Malawi,  Zaire,  Ethiopia  and Vietnam  with the intention  of permanently  settling  in India.
Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person
in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India. A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination  but the offer of appointment  may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.

(a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years  on 1st August,  2022,  i.e. he must  have  been  born  not earlier  than  2nd August, 1990 and not later than 1st August, 2001.
(b) The upper age limit prescribed above will be relaxable:-
(i)   upto  a maximum  of  five  years  if a candidate  belongs  to  a Scheduled  Caste  or  a
Scheduled Tribe.
(ii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward
Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.
(iii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services personnel disabled in operations  during  hostilities  with  any  foreign  country  or  in  a  disturbed  area  and released as a consequence thereof:
(iv) upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen   including Commissioned
Officers and ECOs/SSCOs  who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on
1st August, 2022 and have been released;
(i) on  completion  of  assignment  (including  those  whose  assignment  is  due  to  be completed  within  one  year  from  1st  August,  2022)  otherwise  than  by  way  of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or
(ii)   on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or
(iii)  on invalidment.
(v)   upto a maximum  of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs  who have completed  an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Service as on 1st August, 2022 and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released  on three  month's  notice  on selection  from  the date  of receipt  of offer  of appointment.
(vi) up to a maximum of 10 years in the case of Persons with Benchmark Disabilities viz. (a) low vision; (b) Partially deaf; (c) locomotor  disability  (Sub-category  : leprosy cured and acid attack victims only).

NOTE I : Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the Other  Backward  Classes  who are also covered  under  any other clauses  of para 3(ii)(b) above,  viz.  those  coming  under  the  category  of  Ex-servicemen,   Low  Vision,  Hearing Impaired (Partially deaf) and Locomotor disability (sub-category  : Leprosy cured and Acid attack  victims)  person  etc. will be eligible  for grant of cumulative  age relaxation  under both the categories.
NOTE  II : In regard  to Functional  Classification  and  Physical  Requirements  of PwBD candidates, the same procedure as has been followed till the previous examination may be followed by the Government (Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change).
NOTE  III : The term  Ex-servicemen  will  apply  to the persons  who  are defined  as ex- servicemen in the Ex-servicemen  (Re-employment  in Civil Services and Posts) rules, 1979 as amended from time to time.

NOTE  IV : The age concession  under  para 3(ii)(b)(iv)  and (v) will be admissible  to Ex-
Servicemen  i.e.  a person  who  has  served  in any  rank  whether  as combatant  or non- combatant in the Regular Army, Navy and Air Force of the Indian Union and who either has been retired or relieved or discharged from such service whether at his own request or being relieved by the employer after earning his or her pension.

NOTE V : Notwithstanding  the provision of age relaxation  under para 3(ii)(b)(vi)  above a person   with   benchmark   disability   candidate   will  be  considered   to  be  eligible   for appointment  only  if  he/she  (after  such  physical  examination  as  the  Government  or 
appointing   authority,   as  the  case  may  be,  may  prescribe)   is  found  to  satisfy  the requirements  of physical  and medical  standards  for the concerned  Services/Posts  to be allocated to the person with benchmark disability candidates by the Government.

NOTE  VI  :  The  date  of  birth  accepted  by  the  Commission   is  that  entered  in  the
Matriculation  or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognized by an Indian  University  as  equivalent  to  Matriculation  or  in  an  extract  from  a  Register  of Matriculates  maintained  by a University,  which extract must be certified  by the proper authority  of  the  University  or  in  the  Higher  Secondary  or  an  equivalent  examination certificate.
These certificates are required to be submitted only at the time of applying for the
Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination.

No  other  document   relating  to  age  like  horoscopes,   affidavits,   birth  extracts  from
Municipal Corporation, service records and the like will be accepted.
The expression Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the instruction includes the alternative certificates mentioned above.

NOTE VII : Candidates  should note that only the Date of Birth as recorded  in the Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate or an equivalent certificate on the date of submission of applications will be accepted by the Commission and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted.

NOTE  VIII  :  Candidates  should  also  note  that  once  a  Date  of  Birth  has  been submitted by them in the application form and entered in the records of the Commission  for the  purpose  of admission  to an Examination,  no change  will  be allowed  subsequently  (or  at  any  other  Examination  of  the  Commission)  on  any grounds whatsoever.
Provided   that   in   case   of   an   inadvertent/unintentional/typographical   error committed by a candidate in indicating the date of birth in the Online Application Form, the candidate may make a request to the Commission  for subsequent rectification  along with supporting documents, as specified in the Rule 6 of the Examination and the request may be considered by the Commission, if the same is made latest by the date of within a definite  time  frame  as  may  be  notified  by  the  Commission   in  its  Notice  for  the Examination.  before conduct of the Screening  Test for selection to Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination through the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2022 to be held on which is 05.06.2022.

All communication  in this regard should contain the following particulars :-

(iii) MINIMUM  EDUCATIONAL  QUALIFICATIONS:  A candidate  must hold a Bachelor's degree with at least one of the subjects namely Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics,  Physics, Statistics and Zoology or a Bachelor's degree in Agriculture, Forestry or in Engineering of any of Universities incorporated by an Act  of  the  Central   or  State  Legislature   in  India  or  other  educational   institutions established  by  an  Act  of Parliament  or  declared  to  be deemed  as  a University  under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.

Note I : Candidates who have appeared at an examination the passing of which would render them educationally  qualified for the Commission's  examination  but have not been informed of the results as also the candidates who intend to appear at such a qualifying   examination   will   also   be  eligible   for   admission   to  the   Preliminary Examination. All candidates who are declared qualified by the Commission for taking the Indian  Forest  Service  (Main)  Examination  will be required  to produce  proof of passing  the  requisite  examination  with  their  application  (i.e.  Detailed  Application Form-I) for the Main Examination failing which such candidates will not be admitted to the Indian Forest Service Main Examination.  Such proof of passing the requisite examination  should  be  dated  earlier  than  the  due  date  (closing  date)  of  Detailed 

Application Form-I of the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination. The applications for  the  Main  Examination  may  be  called  sometime  in  the  month  of  July,  2022 through on-line mode.

NOTE II : In addition, the candidates  who possess qualification  equivalent to those
specified   in  Rule  7  will  be  required   to  produce   a  certificate   from  University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions  established  by an Act of the Parliament  or declared to be deemed as a University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 clarifying that the degree is at par with the Bachelor degree specified in Rule 7 along with their application  for  the  Main  Examination  failing  which  such  candidate  will  not  be admitted to the Main Examination.

NOTE III : In exceptional  cases the Union Public Service Commission  may treat a
candidate  who has not any of the foregoing  qualifications  as a qualified  candidate provided that he/she has passed examination conducted by the other Institutions, the standard of which in the opinion of the Commission justifies his/her admission to the examination.

Every  candidate  appearing  at the Examination,  who  is otherwise  eligible,  shall  be permitted six attempts at the examination.

Provided that this restriction on the number of attempts will not apply in the case of
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates who are otherwise eligible.
Provided further that the number of attempts permissible to candidates belonging to
Other Backward Classes who are otherwise eligible, shall be nine.
Provided further that a person with benchmark disability will get as many attempts as are  available  to  other  candidates  who  do  not  belong  to  person  with  benchmark disability  of  his  or  her  community,  subject  to  the  condition  that  a  person  with benchmark disability belonging to the General and EWS Category shall be eligible for nine  attempts..  The  relaxation  will  be  available  to  the  persons  with  benchmark disability who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.

(i)  An attempt at a Preliminary Examination shall be deemed to be an attempt at the
(ii) If a candidate actually appears in any one paper in the Preliminary Examination, as a candidate  for the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination,  it will be deemed that the candidate has made an attempt at the Examination.
(iii)  Notwithstanding   the  disqualification/cancellation  of  candidature,  the  fact  of
appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt.

Candidates  must be physically  fit according  to physical standards  for admission  to Indian Forest Service Examination,  2022 as per regulations  given in Appendix-III  of the rules for the Indian  Forest  Service  Examination,  2022 published  in Gazette  of India dated 02nd February, 2022.

4. FEE Candidates  applying (excepting  Female/SC/ST/PwBD  candidates  who are exempted from payment of fee) for Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination are required to pay a fee of Rs.100/-  (Rupees  One Hundred  only) either by depositing  the money in any Branch of SBI by cash, or by using net banking facility of State Bank of India or by using Visa/Master/RuPay Credit/Debit card.
Applicants who opt for "Pay by Cash" mode should print the system generated Pay-in- slip during part II registration and deposit the fee at the counter of SBI Branch on the next working  day only. "Pay by Cash"  mode  will be deactivated  at 23.59  hours  of 21.02.2022  i.e.  one  day  before  the  closing  date;  however  applicants  who  have generated  their Pay-in-Slip  before  it is deactivated  may pay at the counter  of SBI Branch during banking hours on the closing date. Such applicants who are unable to pay by cash on the closing  i.e. during  banking  hours  at SBI Branch,  for reasons whatsoever, even if holding valid pay-in-slip will have no other offline option but to opt for  available  online  Debit/Credit  Card  or  Internet  Banking  payment  mode  on  the closing date i.e. till 18.00 hours of 22.02.2022. 
For the applicant  in whose case payments  details have not been received from the bank, they will be treated as fictitious payment cases and a list of all such applicants shall be made available on the Commission's website within two weeks after the last day of submission  of Online  Application.  These  applicants  shall  also be intimated through e-mail to submit copy of proof of their payment to the Commission  at the address mentioned in the e-mail. The applicant shall be required to submit the proof within 10 days from the date of such communication either by hand or by speed post to  the  Commission.  In  case,  no  response  is  received  from  the  applicant,  their application shall be summarily rejected and no further correspondence shall be entertained in this regard.
All  female  candidates  and  candidates  belonging  to  Scheduled  Castes/Scheduled
Tribes/Person  with benchmark  disability categories are not required to pay any fee. No  fee  exemption  is,  however,  available  to  OBC/EWS  candidates  and  they  are required  to pay the full prescribed  fee. There  will be separate  examination  fee for Indian  Forest  Service  (Main)  Examination,  for those  who  will qualify  for the same through the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, for which appropriate notice will be issued at the time of filling up of on-line application for the second stage.

Persons  with benchmark  disability  are exempted  from the payment  of fee provided
they are otherwise eligible for appointment  to the Services/Posts  to be filled on the results of this examination on the basis of the standards of medical fitness for these Services/Posts  (including  any concessions  specifically  extended  to the persons with benchmark disability). A person with benchmark disability claiming age relaxation/fee concession will be required by the Commission to submit along with his/her Detailed Application  Form-I,  a certified  copy of the certificate  from a Government  Hospital/ Medical  Board  in  support  of  his/her  claim  for  being  persons  with  benchmark disability.

NOTE : Notwithstanding  the aforesaid provision for age relaxation/fee  exemption,  a
person  with benchmark  disability  will be considered  to be eligible  for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or the appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards  for the concerned  Services/Posts  to be allocated to persons with benchmark disability by the Government.


NOTE II : Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstances nor can the fee be held in reserve for any other examination or selection.
NOTE III : If any candidate who took the Indian Forest Service Examination held in
2021 wishes to apply for admission to this examination, he/she must submit his/her application  so as to each  the Commission's  Office  by the  prescribed  date  without waiting for the results or an offer of appointment.

(a) Candidates are required to apply Online using the link  www.upsconline.nic.in  for Civil   Services   (Preliminary)   Examination   which   will   act   as   a   screening mechanism for selection of candidates for the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination. Candidates who wish to apply for Civil Services Examination also, [subject to their satisfying  the prescribed  eligibility  conditions]  have to apply once by appropriately indicating in the on-line application form that they intend to appear for both the Indian Forest Service Examination and the Civil Services Examination.  Candidates,  who will qualify for the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination, will have to fill in a Detailed Application Form subsequently as per further instructions to be provided to the candidates through the website (www.upsconline.nic.in)   of  the  Commission.  Detailed  instructions  for  filling  up Online Applications are available on the above mentioned website.

The applicants are advised to submit only single application, however, if due to any unavoidable situation, if an applicant submits another/multiple applications, then an applicant must ensure that application with the higher RID is complete in all respects like applicants details, examination  centre, photograph, signature, Photo ID, fee etc. The applicants  who are submitting  multiple  applications  should note that only the 
applications with higher RID (Registration ID) shall be entertained by the Commission and fee paid against one RID shall not be adjusted against any other RID.
(b) All candidates, whether already in Government Service, or in Government owned
industrial  undertakings  or  other  similar  organizations  or  in  private  employment should submit their applications direct to the Commission.
Persons  already  in  Government  service,  whether  in  a  permanent  or  temporary capacity or as work charged employees other than casual or daily rated employees or those serving under Public Enterprises are however, required to inform their Head of Office/Department that they have applied for the Examination.

Candidates should note that in case a communication is received from their employer by the Commission withholding permission to the candidates applying for/appearing at the examination, their applications will be liable to be rejected/candidature  will be liable to be cancelled.
NOTE 1: While  filling  in his/her  Application  Form,  the candidate  should  carefully decide about his/her choice of centre for the Examination. If any candidate appears at a centre other than the one indicated by the Commission in his/her Admission Certificate,  the  papers  of  such  a  candidate  will  not  be  evaluated  and  his/her candidature will be liable to cancellation.

NOTE-2:  The  Persons  with  Benchmark  Disabilities  in  the  categories  of  blindness (partially blind), will be provided the facility of scribe, if desired by the person. In case of other category of Persons with Benchmark Disabilities as defined under section 2(r) of the RPWD Act, 2016, the facility of scribe will be allowed to such candidates  on production  of  a  certificate  to  the  effect  that  the  person  concerned  has  physical limitation  to write, and scribe is essential to write examination  on behalf, from the Chief Medical Officer/Civil Surgeon/Medical  Superintendent  of a Government Health Care institution as per proforma at Appendix – IV.  The candidates have discretion of opting for his/her own scribe or request the Commission for the same.  The details of scribe  i.e.  whether  own  or  the  Commission’s  and  the  details  of  scribe  in  case candidates are bringing their own scribe, will be sought at the time of filling up the application form online. Suitable provisions in Online Application have been made. NOTE 3 : The qualification of the Commission’s scribe as well as own scribe will not be more than the minimum  qualification  criteria of the examination.   However, the qualification of the scribe should always be matriculate or above.

NOTE 4 : The Persons with Benchmark Disabilities in the category of low-vision will be allowed Compensatory  Time of twenty minutes per hour of the examination.   In case of other categories of Persons with Benchmark  Disabilities,  this facility will be provided  on production  of a certificate  to the effect that the person concerned  has physical limitation to write from the Chief Medical Officer/Civil Surgeon/Medical Superintendent   of  a  Government   Health   Care  institution   as  per  proforma   at Appendix-IV.

NOTE  5  : Candidates  appearing  in  CS(P)  Examination,  2022  will  be  required  to
indicate information such as (a) detail of centres for Civil Services (Main) Examination and Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination (b) Optional subject to be selected for both   the   examinations,   (c)   medium   of   examination   for   Civil   Services   (Main) Examination   and   (d)   compulsory   Indian   language   for   Civil   Services   (Main) Examination  at the time of the filling up online application  itself, incase he/she is applying  for  both  the  Civil  Services  Examination  and  the  Indian  Forest  Service Examination or else requisite examination specific information, as the case may be. NOTE 6 : Candidates  are not required to submit along with their applications  any certificate  in  support  of  their  claims  regarding  Age,  Educational  Qualifications, Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes/Economically  Weaker Section and Person with benchmark disability etc. which will be verified at the time of the  Main  examination  only.  The  candidates  applying  for  the  examination  should ensure that they fulfill all the eligibility conditions for admission to the Examination. Their admission at all the stages of examination  for which they are admitted by the Commission    viz.   Preliminary    Examination,    Main   (Written)   Examination    and Personality  Test (Interview)  will be purely provisional,  subject to their satisfying the prescribed  eligibility  conditions.  If  on  verification  at  any  time  before  or  after  the 
Preliminary Examination, Main (written) Examination and Personality Test (Interview), it is found that they do not fulfill any of the eligibility conditions; their candidature for the examination will be cancelled by the Commission.   If any of their claims is found to be incorrect, they may render themselves liable to disciplinary action by the Commission   in  terms  of  Rule  12  of  the  Rules  for  the  Indian  Forest  Service Examination, 2022 reproduced below :
(1)     A candidate who is or has been declared by the Commission to be guilty of :-
(a) Obtaining support for candidature by the following means, namely :- (i)  offering illegal gratification to; or
(ii)  applying pressure on; or
(iii)  blackmailing, or threatening to blackmail any person connected with the conduct of the examination; or
(b) impersonation; or
(c) procuring impersonation by any person; or
(d) submitting fabricated/incorrect documents or documents which have been tampered with; or
(e) uploading irrelevant or incorrect photo/signature in the application form in place of actual photo/signature; or
(f)  making statements which are incorrect or false or suppressing material information; or
(g) resorting to the following means in connection with the candidature for the examination, namely :-
(i)  obtaining copy of question paper through improper means; or
(ii)  finding out the particulars of the persons connected with secret work relating to the examination; or
(iii)  influencing the examiners; or
(h) being in possession of or using unfair means during the examination; or
(i)  writing obscene matter or drawing obscene sketches or irrelevant matter in the scripts; or
(j)  misbehaving in the examination hall including tearing of the scripts,
provoking fellow examinees to boycott examination, creating a disorderly scene and the like; or
(k) harassing, threatening or doing bodily harm to the staff employed by the
Commission for the conduct of the examination; or
(l)  being in possession of or using any mobile phone, (even in switched-off mode), pager or any electronic equipment or programmable device or storage media like pen drive, smart watches etc. or camera or bluetooth devices or any other equipment or related accessories (either in working or switched-off mode) capable of being used as a communication device during the examination; or
(m) violating any of the instructions issued to candidates along with their
admission certificates permitting them to take the examination; or
(n) attempting to commit or, as the case may be, abetting the commission of all or any of the acts specified in the foregoing clauses;
in addition to being liable to criminal prosecution, shall be disqualified by the
Commission from the Examination held under these Rules; and/or shall be liable to be debarred either permanently or for a specified period :-
(i)     by the Commission, from any examination or selection held by them;
(ii)     by the Central Government from any employment under them;
and shall be liable to face disciplinary action under the appropriate rules if already in service under Government;
Provided that no penalty under this rule shall be imposed except after :-
(i)  giving the candidate an opportunity of making such representation in writing as the candidate may wish to make in that behalf; and
(ii)  taking the representation, if any, submitted by the candidate within the period allowed for this purpose, into consideration. 
(2)      Any person who is found by the Commission  to be guilty of colluding with a candidate(s) in committing or abetting the commission of any of the misdeeds listed at the clauses (a) to (m) above will be liable to action in terms of the clause (n) above.
The Online Applications  can be filled upto 22th  February,  2022 till 18.00 Hours, after which the link will be disabled. Detailed instructions regarding filling of online application is available at Appendix-II(A).
(ii) The online Applications  can be withdrawn  from 01.03.2022  to 07.03.2022  till
6.00  PM  after  which  the  link  will  be  disabled.  Detailed  instructions  regarding withdrawal of Applications is available at Appendix-II(B).
The Commission  will not enter into any correspondence  with the candidates  about their candidature except in the following cases:
(i) The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card about three weeks before
the commencement  of the examination.  The e-Admit Card will be made available in the UPSC website [http://www.upsconline.  nic.in.] for downloading by candidates. No Admission Certificate will be sent by post. If a candidate does not receive his/her e-Admit Card or any other communication regarding his/her candidature for the examination  three  weeks  before  the  commencement   of  the  examination,  he/she should  at  once  contact  the  Commission.  Information  in  this  regard  can  also  be obtained  from the Facilitation  Counter  located  in the Commission's  office either in person or over phone Nos.011-23381125/011-23385271/011-23098543.
In  case  no  communication  is  received  in  the  Commission's  office  from  the
candidate  regarding  non-receipt  of his/her  e-Admit  Card at least three weeks before the examination,  he/she  himself/  herself will be solely responsible  for non-receipt of his/her e-Admission Certificate.
No candidate will ordinarily be allowed to take the examination unless he/she holds an e-certificate of admission for the examination.   On receipt of e-Admit Card, candidates should check it carefully and bring discrepancies/errors,  if any, to the notice of UPSC immediately.  The candidates should note that their admission to the examination will be purely provisional based on the information given by them in the Application Form. This will be subject to verification of all the eligibility conditions by the UPSC.
The  mere  fact  that  a  certificate  of  admission  to  the  Examination  has  been
issued to a candidate, will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared  by the Commission  or that entries  made by the candidate  in his/her application   for  the  Preliminary   examination   have   been   accepted   by  the Commission  as true  and  correct.  Candidates  may  note  that  the Commission takes up the verification of eligibility conditions of a candidate, with reference to original documents, only after the candidate has qualified for Indian Forest Service  (Main)  Examination.  Unless  candidature  is formally  confirmed  by the Commission, it continues to be provisional.
The decision of the Commission  as to the eligibility or otherwise  of a candidate  for admission to the Examination shall be final. Candidates should note that the name in the e-Admit Card in some cases may be abbreviated due to technical reasons.
(ii) In the event of a candidate  downloading  more than one e-Admit  Card from the
website of the Commission,  he/she should use only one of these e-Admit Cards for appearing in the examination and report about the other(s) to the Commission Office. (iii) Candidates are informed that as the Preliminary Examination is only a screening test, no marks sheets will be supplied to successful or unsuccessful candidates and no correspondence will be entertained by the Commission, in this regard.
(iv) Candidates  must ensure that their E-mail IDs given in their online Applications
are valid and active as the Commission  may use electronic mode of communication while contacting them at different stages of the examination process.
8. Reservation against vacancies for Persons with Benchmark Disability:
The eligibility for availing reservation against the vacancies reserved for the persons with benchmark disability shall be the same as prescribed in “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016”: Reservation in vacancies for IFoS is granted only to (a)  low  vision;  (b)  Partially  deaf;  and  (c)  locomotor  disability  (sub-category  : leprosy cured and acid attack victims only).
Provided  further  that  the  persons  with  benchmark  disability  shall  also  be required  to  meet  special  eligibility  criteria  in  terms  of  physical  requirements/ functional classification (abilities/disabilities) consistent with requirements of the identified service/post as may be prescribed by its cadre controlling authority.
The functional classification and physical requirement can for example be one or more
of the following :

Note : The above list is subject to revision from time to time.
(1)   A candidate  will be eligible to get the benefit of community  reservation  only in case the particular  caste to which the candidates  belong  is included  in the list of reserved communities issued by the Central Government.
(2)   The  OBC  candidates  applying  for  IFoS  Exam,  2022  through  CSE-2022  must produce OBC (Non-Creamy  Layer) certificate  based on the income for the Financial Year (FY) 2020-2021, 2019-20 and 2018-19.
(3) The candidate will be eligible to get the benefit of the Economically Weaker Section reservation only in case the candidate meets the criteria issued by the Central Government and is in possession of requisite Income & Asset Certificate based on the income for Financial Year (FY) 2020-2021.
10. Candidates seeking reservation/relaxation benefits available for SC/ST/OBC/ EWS/PwBD/Ex-servicemen must ensure that they are entitled to such reservation/ relaxation  as per eligibility  prescribed  in the Rules/Notice.  They should  also be in possession of all the requisite certificates in the prescribed format in support of their claim as stipulated  in the Rules/Notice  for such benefits by the closing date of the application  of Indian  Forest  Service  (Preliminary)  Examination,  2022  through  Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2022.
The closing date fixed for the receipt of the application of Indian Forest Service
(Preliminary)  Examination,  2022 through  Civil Services  (Preliminary)  Examination  -
2022 will be treated as the date for determining  the OBC status (including  that of creamy layer) of the candidates.
If a candidate  indicates  in his/her  application  form  for  Indian  Forest  Service Examination through Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination that he/she belongs to General  category  but  subsequently  writes  to  the  Commission  to  change  his/her 
category to a reserved one, such request shall not be entertained by the Commission. Further,  once  a  candidate  has  chosen  a  reserved  category,  no  request  shall  be entertained  for change to other reserved  category  viz. SC to ST, ST to SC, OBC to SC/ST or SC/ST to OBC, SC to EWS, EWS to SC, ST to EWS, EWS to ST, OBC to EWS, EWS to OBC. No reserved category candidates other than those recommended on  General  Merit  shall  be  allowed  to  change  his/her  category  from  Reserved  to Unreserved or claim the vacancies (Cadre) for UR category after the declaration of final result by UPSC
Further no Persons with Benchmark Disabilities (PwBD) candidate of any subcategory thereunder shall be allowed to change his/her sub-category of disability.
While the above principle will be followed in general, there may be a few cases
where  there  was  a  gap  not  more  than  3  months  between  the  issuance  of  a Government  Notification  enlisting  a particular  community  in the list of any of the reserved communities and the date of submission of the application by the candidate. In such cases the request of change of community from General to Reserved may be considered by the Commission on merit.
In case of a candidate unfortunately becoming person with benchmark disability during  the course  of the examination  process,  the candidate  should  produce  valid documents  showing him/her acquiring a disability to the extent of 40% or more as defined under the RPwD Act, 2016 to enable him/her to get the benefits of reservation earmarked for persons with benchmark disability provided he/she otherwise remains eligible for Indian Forest Service as per Rule 19 of Indian Forest Service Examination.
12.  Withdrawal of application : The Commission will provide a window of a specified
period   for   withdrawal   of   application   for   Indian   Forest   Service   (Preliminary) Examination through Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination after the closing date of application.   No request for withdrawal  of candidature  will, however, be entertained after the expiry of the specified period by the Commission under any circumstances

13. Details about the scheme of examination, standard and syllabi of the subjects etc. may be seen in Appendix-I of this Notice. 

The competitive examination comprises two successive stages :
(i)  Civil Services  (Preliminary)  Examination  (Objective  Type) for the screening  &
selection of candidates for Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination; and
(ii) Indian  Forest  Service  (Main)  Examination  (Written  and  Interview)  for  the selection  of candidates  against  the vacancies  identified  and reported  for the Indian Forest Service Examination.
2. The preliminary Examination will consist of two papers of Objective type (multiple choice questions) and carry a maximum of 400 marks in the subjects set out in sub- section (A) of Section II. This examination is meant to serve as a screening test only; the  marks  obtained  in  the  Preliminary  Examination  by  the  candidates  who  are declared  qualified  for admission  to the  Main  Examination  will  not be counted  for determining their final order of merit. The number of candidates to be admitted to the Main  Examination  will  be  about  twelve  to  thirteen  times  the  total  approximate number of vacancies  to be filled in the year through this examination.   Only those candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified in the Preliminary Examination in the year will be eligible for admission to the Main Examination of that year provided they are otherwise eligible for admission, to the Main Examination.
Note I : Since there may be common candidates for Civil Services Examination  and the Indian Forest Service Examination, after the common Screening Test done through   Civil   Services   (Preliminary)   Examination,   separate   lists   will   be prepared for the candidates eligible to appear in the Civil Service (Main) Examination  and  Indian  Forest  Service  (Main)  Examination,  based  on  the 
criterion of minimum qualifying marks of 33% in General Studies Paper-II of Civil  Services   (Preliminary)   Examination   and  total  qualifying   marks  of General Studies Paper-I of  Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination as determined by the Commission on the number of vacancies to be filled through the Civil Services Examination and Indian Forest Service Examination.
Note II : There will be negative marking for incorrect answers as detailed below :-
(i) There are four alternatives for the answers to every question. For each question for which  a  wrong  answer  has  been  given  by  the  candidate,  one-third  of  the  marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.
(ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happen to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.
(iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty for that question."
3. The Main Examination  will consist of written examination  and an interview test.
The written  examination  will consist  of 6 papers of conventional  essay type in the subjects  set out in sub-section  (B) of Section  II. Also see Note (ii) under para I of Section II(B).
4. Candidates who obtain such minimum qualifying marks in the written part of the
Main Examination  as may be fixed by the Commission  at their discretion,  shall be summoned  by them  for an interview  for a Personality  Test  vide  sub-section  'C' of Section II. The number of candidates to be summoned for interview will be about twice the number of vacancies to be filled.
The interview will carry 300 marks (with no minimum qualifying marks).
Marks thus obtained by the candidates in the Main Examination (written part as well as interview) would determine their final ranking.
Scheme and subjects for the Preliminary and Main Examination. A. PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION :
The Examination shall comprise of two compulsory Papers of 200 marks each.
Note :
(i)  Both the question papers will be of the objective type (multiple choice questions).
(ii) The General Studies Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.
(iii) The question papers will be set both in Hindi and English.
(iv) Details of the syllabi are indicated in Part A of Section III. B. MAIN EXAMINATION:
(A) The written examination consisting of the following papers:—
Paper I—General English                                             300 Marks
Paper II—General Knowledge                                       300 Marks
Papers III, IV, V and VI.—Any two subjects to be selected from the list of the optional subjects set out in para 2 below. Each subject will have two papers.—      200    marks for each paper.
Note :  Answer  scripts  of  only  those  candidates  who  have  obtained  the  minimum marks  as  decided  by  the  Commission  for  Paper  II  (General  Knowledge)  will  be evaluated.
(B) Interview for Personality  Test (See Part C of Section II of this Appendix) of such candidates as may be called by the Commission—
Maximum Marks : 300
2. List of optional subjects : (i) Agriculture
(ii)    Agricultural Engineering
(iii)   Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
(iv)   Botany
(v)    Chemistry
(vi)   Chemical Engineering
(vii)  Civil Engineering
(viii) Forestry 
(ix)   Geology
(x)    Mathematics
(xi)   Mechanical Engineering
(xii)  Physics (xiii) Statistics (xiv) Zoology
Provided that the candidates will not be allowed to offer the following combination of
subjects :
(a)    Agriculture and Agricultural Engg.
(b)    Agriculture and Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science. (c)    Agriculture and Forestry.
(d)    Chemistry and Chemical Engg. (e)    Mathematics and Statistics.
(f) Of  the  Engineering  subjects  viz.  Agricultural  Engineering,  Chemical Engineering,  Civil Engineering  and Mechanical  Engineering—not  more than one subject;
NOTE—The standard and syllabi of the subjects mentioned above are given in Section
General Instructions (Main Examination) :
1. All the question papers for the examination  will be of conventional  (essay) 

3. The duration of each of the papers referred to above will be three hours.
4. The Commission  have discretion  to fix qualifying  marks in any or all the papers of the examination.
5.       If a candidate's handwriting is not easily legible, deduction will be made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to him/her.
6. Marks will not be allotted for mere superficial knowledge.
7.       Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression combined with due economy of words in all subjects of the examination.
8. In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used.
9. Candidates should use only international form of Indian numerals (e.g. 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, etc.) while answering question papers.
10. Candidates  will be allowed the use of Scientific (Non-programmable  type) calculators at the conventional type examinations of UPSC. Programmable type calculators  will however not be allowed and the use of such calculators  shall tantamount to resorting to unfair means by the candidates. Loaning and interchanging of calculators in the Examination Hall is not permitted. It is also important to note that candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering  objective  type  papers  (Test  Booklets).  They  should  not  therefore bring the same inside the Examination Hall.
11. Candidates should note that if any irrelevant matter/signages/marks  etc. are found written in the answer script(s), which would not be related to any question/answer   and/or   would   be  having   the  potential   to  disclose   the candidate’s  identity,  the  Commission  will  impose  a penalty  of  deduction  of marks from the total marks  otherwise  accruing  to the candidate  or will not evaluate the said script(s) on this account.
12(i). Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers  for them. The Persons  with  Benchmark  Disabilities  in  the  category  of  low  vision,  will  be provided the facility of scribe, if desired by the person. In case of other category of Persons  with Benchmark  Disabilities  as defined  under  section  2(r) of the RPWD Act, 2016, the facility of scribe will be allowed to such candidates  on production of a certificate to the effect that the person concerned has physical limitation to write, and scribe is essential to write examination on behalf, from the   Chief   Medical   Officer/Civil    Surgeon/Medical    Superintendent    of   a Government Health Care institution as per proforma at Appendix – IV. 
(ii)      The  candidates  have  discretion  of  opting  for  his/her  own  scribe  or request the Commission for the same.  The details of scribe i.e. whether own or the Commission’s and the details of scribe in case candidates are bringing their own scribe, will be sought at the time of filling up the application form online. (iii)     The qualification  of the Commission’s  scribe as well as own scribe will   not   be  more   than   the   minimum   qualification   criteria   of  the examination.   However,  the qualification  of the scribe should always be matriculate or above.
(iv)      The Persons  with Benchmark  Disabilities  in the category  of low-vision will  be  allowed  Compensatory   Time  of  twenty  minutes  per  hour  of  the examination.      In  case   of  other   categories   of  Persons   with   Benchmark Disabilities,  this facility will be provided  on production  of a certificate  to the effect that the person concerned has physical limitation to write from the Chief Medical Officer/Civil Surgeon/Medical Superintendent of a Government Health Care institution as per proforma at Appendix-IV.
Note  (1)  :  The  eligibility   conditions   of  a  scribe,   his/her   conduct   inside   the
examination hall and the manner  in which and extent to which he/she can help the Persons with Benchmark Disability candidate in writing the Indian Forest Service Examination shall be governed by the instructions issued by the UPSC in this regard. Violation  of all or any of the said  instructions  shall  entail  the cancellation  of the candidature of the Persons with Benchmark Disability candidate in addition to any other action that the UPSC may take against the scribe.
Note (2) : For purpose  of these rules the candidate  shall be deemed  to be a Low
Vision candidate if the percentage  of visual impairment  is Forty   per cent (40%) or more. The criteria for determining  the percentage  of visual impairment  shall be as follows :—

Note (3) : For availing of the concession admissible to a Low Vision candidate, the candidate  concerned  shall produce  a certificate  in the prescribed  proforma  from a Medical  Board  constituted   by  the  Central/State   Governments   along  with  their application for the Main Examination.
Note (4) : The concession admissible to Low Vision candidates shall not be admissible to those suffering from Myopia.
The candidate will be interviewed  by a Board of competent and unbiased observers who will have before them a record of his/her career. The object of the Interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for the Service. The candidate will be expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in his/her subjects of academic study  but  also  in  events  which  are  happening  around  him/her  both  within  and 
outside his/her own state or country, as well as in modem currents of thoughts and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well educated youth.
2. The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross examination,  but of a
natural,  though  directed  and  purposive  conversation,  intended  to  reveal  mental qualities of the candidate. The Board will pay special attention to assessing the intellectual  curiosity,  critical  powers  of  observation  and  assimilation,  balance  of judgment and alertness of mind, initiative, tact, capacity for leadership; the ability for social  cohesion,  mental  and  physical  energy  and  powers  of  practical  application; integrity of character; and other qualities such as topographical  sense, love for out- door life and the desire to explore unknown and out of way places.•
NOTE : Candidates are advised to go through the Syllabus published in this Section for the Preliminary Examination and the Main Examination.
Part A-Preliminary Examination
Paper I -                          (200 marks)                               Duration : Two hours
•   Current events of national and international importance
•   History of India and Indian National Movement
•   Indian and World Geography- Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
• Indian Polity and Governance- Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public
Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
• Economic  and Social  Development-  Sustainable  Development,  Poverty,  Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
• General issues on Environmental  ecology, Bio-diversity  and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialization.
•   General Science.
Paper II-                                    (200 marks)                               Duration : Two hours
•   Comprehension
•   Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
•   Logical reasoning and analytical ability
•   Decision making and problem solving
•   General mental ability
• Basic numeracy  (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude,  etc.) (Class X level),  Data  interpretation  (charts,  graphs,  tables,  data  sufficiency  etc. - Class  X level)
Note  1:  Paper-II  of  the  Civil  Services  (Preliminary)  Examination  will  be  a
qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%. Note 2 : The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type.
Note 3: It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil
Services (Prelim) Examination  for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination.
Part B-Main Examination
The standard  of papers in General English and General Knowledge  will be such as may be expected of a Science or Engineering graduate of an Indian University.
There will be no practical examination in any of the subjects.
Candidates will be required to write an essay in English. Other questions will be designed to test their understanding  of English and workmanlike use of words. Passages will usually be set for summary or precis.
General  Knowledge  including  knowledge  of current  events  and  of such  matters  of every day observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific subject. The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the  Constitution  of  India,  History  of  India  and  Geography  of  a nature  which  the candidate should be able to answer without special study.
Total number of questions in the question papers of optional subjects will be eight. All questions will carry equal marks. Each paper will be divided into two parts, viz. Part A and Part B, each part containing four questions. Out of eight questions, five questions are to be attempted. One question in each part will be compulsory. Candidates will be required to answer three more questions out of the remaining six questions, taking at least  one  question  from  each  Part.  In  this  way,  at  least  two  questions  will  be attempted from each Part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more.
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable  management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production.   Climatic   elements   as  factors   of  crop  growth,   impact   of  changing environment   on  cropping  pattern  as  indicators  of  environments.   Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.
Cropping  pattern  in  different  agro-climatic  zones  of  the  country.  Impact  of  high-
yielding  and  short-duration  varieties  on  shifts  in  cropping  pattern.  Concepts  of multiple  cropping,  multistorey,  relay  and  intercropping,  and  their  importance  in relation to food production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country. Important features, scope and propagation of various types of forestry plantations such as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests.
Weeds, their characteristics,  dissemination  and association with various crops; their
multiplication;   cultural,  biological  and  chemical  control  of  weeds.  Soil-physical, chemical  and biological  properties.  Processes  and factors of soil formation.  Modern classification of Indian soils, Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in  maintaining   soil  productivity.   Essential  plant  nutrients  and  other  beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use, integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged  rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and potassium in soils and the scope for their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation  planning on watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management  in hilly, foot hills, and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in rain fed agriculture area.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways  and means  of reducing  run-off  losses  of irrigation  water.  Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
Farm management,  scope, important  and characteristics,  farm planning.  Optimum resources use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
Agricultural  extension,  its importance  and role, methods  of evaluation  of extension
programmes,  socio-economic  survey and status of big, small, and marginal farmers and landless agricultural  labourers; farm mechanization  and its role in agricultural production and rural employment.   Training programmes for extension workers; lab- to-land programmes.
Cell Theory,  cell structure,  cell organelles  and their function,  cell division,  nucleic acids-structure  and function,  gene  structure  and function.  Laws  of heredity,  their significance  in  plant  breeding.  Chromosome  structure,  chromosomal  aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination  breeding. Polyploidy, euploid   and   an   euploids.   Mutation-micro   and   macro-and   their   role   in   crop improvement. Variation, components of variation. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex influenced and sex-limited characters.
History  of plant  breeding.  Modes  of reproduction,  selfing  and crossing  techniques. Origin and evolution of crop plants, centre of origin, law of homologous  series, crop genetic  resources-conservation   and  utilization.  Application  of  principles  of  plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation,  backcross method of breeding, breeding for disease and pest   resistance,   role   of   inter-specific   and   inter-generic   hybridization.   Role   of biotechnology  in plant breeding.  Improved  varieties,  hybrids,  composites  of various crop plants.
Seed technology,  its importance.  Different kinds of seeds and their seed production
and processing  techniques.  Role  of public  and private  sectors  in seed  production, processing and marketing in India.
Physiology and its significance  in agriculture.  Imbibitions,  surface tension, diffusion and  osmosis.   Absorption   and  translocation   of  water,   transpiration   and  water economy. Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis-modern  concepts and factors affecting   the   process,   aerobic   and   non-aerobic   respiration;   C,   C   and   CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
Growth and development; photo-periodism  and vernalization. Auxins, hormones, and
other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
Climatic  requirements  and  cultivation  of major  fruits,  plants,  vegetable  crops  and flower  plants;  the  package  of  practices  and  their  scientific  basis.  Handling  and marketing problems of fruit and vegetables. Principal methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition. Raising of ornamental plants, and design and layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field vegetables, orchard and plantation crops of India. Causes
and classification of plant pests and diseases. Principles of control of plant pests and diseases Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management. Epidemiology and forecasting. Pesticides, their formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of cereals and pulses, and their control.
Food production  and consumption  trends in India. National  and international  food policies. Production, procurement, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of calorie and protein.
1. Soil and Water Conservation  : Scope of soil and water conservation.  Mechanics and  types  of erosion,  their  causes.  Mechanics  and  types  of erosion,  their  causes. Rainfall, runoff and sedimentation relationships and their measurement. Soil erosion control measures - biological and engineering including stream bank protection- vegetative  barriers,  contour  bunds,  contour  trenches,  contour  stone walls, contour ditches, terraces, outlets and grassed waterways. Gully control structures - temporary and permanent  - design  of permanent  soil conservation  structures  such as chute, drop and drop inlet spillways. Design of farm ponds and percolation ponds. Principles of flood control-flood  routing. Watershed  Management  - investigation,  planning  and implementation   -  selection  of  priority  areas  and  water  shed  work  plan,  water harvesting  and  moisture  conservation.  Land  development  -  leveling,  estimation  of 
earth volumes and costing. Wind Erosion process - design for shelter belts and wind brakes and their management. Forest (Conservation) Act.
2. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing : Basic characteristics of photographic
images, interpretation  keys, equipment  for interpretation,  imagery interpretation  for land  use,  geology,  soil  and  forestry.  Remote  sensing  -  merits  and  demerits  of conventional and remote sensing approaches. Types of satellite images, fundamentals of satellite  image interpretation,  techniques  of visual and digital interpretations  for soil, water and land use management.  Use of GIS in planning  and development  of watersheds, forests including forest cover, water resources etc.
Section B
3. Irrigation and Drainage : Sources of water for irrigation. Planning and design of minor irrigation projects. Techniques of measuring soil moisture - laboratory and in situ, Soil-water plant relationships. Water requirement of crops. Planning conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Measurement of irrigation water, measuring devices
-  orifices,  weirs  and  flumes.  Methods  of  irrigation  -  surface,  sprinkler  and  drip,
fertigation.  Irrigation  efficiencies  and  their  estimation.  Design  and  construction  of canals,  field  channels,  underground   pipelines,  head-gates,   diversion  boxes  and structures for road crossing.
Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of wells, types of wells (tube wells and open
wells) and their construction.  Well development  and testing. Pumps-types,  selection and installation. Rehabilitation of sick and failed wells.
Drainage causes of water logging and salt problem. Methods of drainage- drainage of irrigated and unirrigated lands, design of surface, sub-surface  and vertical drainage systems. Improvement and utilization of poor quality water. Reclamation of saline and alkali  soils.  Economics  of irrigation  and drainage  systems.  Use of waste  water  for irrigation   -  standards   of  waste   water   for  sustained   irrigation,   feasibility   and economics.
4. Agricultural  Structures  : Site selection,  design and construction  of farmstead  -
farm  house,  cattle  shed,  dairy  bam,  poultry  shed,  hog  housing,  machinery  and implement shed, storage structures for food grains, feed and forage. Design and construction of fences and farm roads.
Structures  for plant  environment  – green  houses,  poly  houses  and shade  houses. Common building materials used in construction - timber, brick, stone, tiles, concrete etc and their properties. Water supply, drainage and sanitation system.
Section A
1. Farm Power and Machinery : Agricultural mechanization  and its scope. Sources of farm power - animate and electro-mechanical.  Thermodynamics,  construction and working  of  internal  combustion  engines.  Fuel,  ignition,  lubrication,  cooling  and governing  system of IC engines. Different types of tractors and power tillers. Power transmission, ground drive, power take off (p.t.o.) and control systems. Operation and maintenance  of farm machinery  for primary and secondary  tillage. Traction  theory. Sowing   transplanting   and  interculture   implements   and  tools.   Plant   protection equipment – spraying and dusting. Harvesting, threshing and combining equipment. Machinery  for earth moving  and land development  - methods  and cost estimation. Ergonomics  of man-machine  system.  Machinery  for horticulture  and  agro-forestry, feeds and forages. Haulage of agricultural and forest produce.
2. Agro-energy : Energy requirements of agricultural operations and agro-processing.
Selection, installation, safety and maintenance of electric motors for agricultural applications. Solar (thermal and photovoltoic), wind and bio-gas energy and their utilization  in  agriculture.  Gasification  of  biomass  for  running  IC  engines  and  for electric power generation. Energy efficient cooking stoves and alternate cooking fuels. Distribution of electricity for agricultural and agro-industrial applications.
Section B
3. Agricultural Process Engineering : Post harvest technology of crops and its scope. Engineering  properties  of agricultural  produces  and by-products.  Unit operations  - clearing grading, size reduction, densification, concentration, drying/dehydration, evaporation,  filtration,  freezing  and  packaging  of  agricultural  produces  and  by- 
products.  Material  handling  equipment  belt and screw conveyors,  bucket elevators, their capacity and power requirement.
Processing   of   milk   and   dairy   products   -   homogenization,   cream   separation,
pasteurization, sterilization, spray and roller drying, butter making, ice cream, cheese and shrikhand manufacture. Waste and by-product utilization - rice husk, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, plant residues and coir pith.
4.  Instrumentation  and  computer  applications  in  Agricultural  Engineering  :
Electronic devices and their characteristics-rectifiers, amplifiers, oscillators, multi- vibrators. Digital circuits - sequential and combinational system. Application of microprocessors in data acquisition and control of agricultural engineering processes- measurement  systems for level, flow, strain, force, torque, power, pressure, vacuum and temperature. Computers - introduction, input/output devices, central processing unit,  memory   devices,   operating   systems,   processors,   keyboards   and  printers. Algorithms,  flowchart  specification,  programme  translation  and problem analysis in Agricultural Engineering. Multimedia and Audio-Visual aids.
1. Animal Nutrition-Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance  and production  of milk, meat,  eggs and wool.  Evaluation  of feeds as sources of energy.
1.1. Trends in protein nutrition: sources of protein metabolism and synthesis, protein
quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration.
1.2. Minerals in animal diet : Sources, functions, requirements and their relationship of the basic minerals nutrients including trace elements.
1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating,  substances  : Sources, functions,
requirements and inter-relationship with minerals.
1.4. Advances  in Ruminant  Nutrition-Dairy  Cattle:  Nutrients  and their metabolism with  reference  to  milk  production  and  its  composition.  Nutrient  requirements  for calves,  heifers,  dry and milking  cows and buffaloes.  Limitations  of various  feeding systems.
1.5  Advances  in  Non-Ruminant  Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients  and  their  metabolism
with reference to poultry, meat and egg production, Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients  and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production, Nutrient requirement and feed formulation for baby-growing and finishing pigs.
1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-A critical review and evaluation of feeding
experiments,  digestibility  and balance  studies.  Feeding  standards  and measures  of food   energy.   Nutrition   requirements   for  growth,   maintenance   and   production. Balanced rations.
2. Animal Physiology :
2.1 Growth and Animal Production  : Prenatal  and postnatal  growth,  maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current status of hormonal
control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female reproduction  organ,  their  components  and  function.  Digestive  organs  and  their functions.
2.3  Environmental   Physiology   :  Physiological   relations   and  their   regulation;
mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.
2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and Artificial Insemination-Components of semen,
composition  of spermatozoa,  chemical  and physical  properties  of ejaculated  semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality  preservation,   composition  of  diluents,  sperm  concentration,   transport  of diluted  semen.  Deep  Freezing  techniques  in  cows,  sheep  and  goats,  swine  and poultry.
Detection of estrus and time of insemination for better conception. 
3. Livestock Production and Management :
3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-Comparison  of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming, economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy farm. Capital and land requirement,  organisation  of the dairy farm.
Procurement   of  goods;  opportunities   in  dairy  farming,   factors  determining   the efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production; pricing policy;  Personnel  Management.  Developing  Practical  and Economic  ration  for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout  the year, field and fodder requirements  of Dairy Farm,  Feeding  regimes  for  day  and  young  stock  and  bulls,  heifers  and  breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
3.2   Commercial  meat, egg and wool production:  Development  of practical  and
economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing  production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio-economic concept.
3.3  Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural
4. Genetics  and  Animal  Breeding  : Mitosis  and  Meiosis;  Mendelian  inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism;  Chromosome  aberrations;  Gene and its structure;  DNA as a genetic material;   Genetic   code   and   protein   synthesis;   Recombinant   DNA   technology, Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.
4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Quantitative  Vs. qualitative
traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding;  Effective  population  size; Breeding  value,  estimation  of breeding  value, dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
4.2 Breeding Systems : Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and  their  relative  merits;  Individual,  pedigree,  family  and  within  family  selection; Progeny  testing;  Methods  of  selection;  Construction  of  selection  indices  and  their uses;  Comparative  evaluation  of  genetic  gains  through  various  selection  methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of brees; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production;  Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold character.
Paper II
1. Health and Hygiene
1.1.  Histology  and  Histological  Techniques  :  Stains-Chemical   classification  of stains used in biological  work-principles  of staining tissues-mordants-progressive & regressive stains-differential  staining of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements- Methods of preparation and processing of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology- structure of cell, organells & inclusions; cell division-cell types-Tissues and their classification-embryonic  and adult tissues-Comparative  histology of organs:- vascular, Nervous,  digestive,  respiratory,  musculo-skeletal  and urogenital  systems-Endocrine glands-Integuments-sense organs.
1.2.  Embryology  : Embryology  of  vertebrates  with  special  reference  to  aves  and
domestic mammals-gametogenesis-fertilization-germ   layers-foetal    membranes    & placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twin  & twinning- organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy-Regional  Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX-surface anatomy
of  salivary  glands.  Regional  anatomy  of  infraorbital,  maxillary,  mandibuloalveolar, mental  & coronal  nerve block-Regional  anatomy  of para-vertebral  nerves,  pudental 
nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves- structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial  lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative  features of locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy  of Fowl : Musculo-skeletal  system-functional  anatomy  in relation  to
respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Physiology  of blood  and  its circulation,  respiration;  excretion,  Endocrine glands in health and disease.
1.5.1 Blood   constituents   :   Properties   and   functions-blood    cell   formation- Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma  proteins production, classification and properties;    coagulation    of   blood;   Haemorrhagic    disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood  volume-Plasma  expanders-Buffer  systems  in blood.  Biochemical  tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
1.5.2.  Circulation:   Physiology   of  heart,  cardiac  cycle-heart   sounds,  heartbeat,
electro-cardiograms,  Work  and  efficiency  of heart-effect  of ions  on  heart  function- metabolism  of cardiac  muscle,  nervous  and  chemical  regulation  of heart,  effect  of temperature   and   stress   on   heart,   blood   pressure   and   hypertension,   Osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary & pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier-Cerebrospinal  fluid-circulation in birds.
1.5.3  Respiration  : Mechanism  of respiration,  Transport  and  exchange  of gases-
neural control of respiration-chemo receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
1.5.4  Excretion:  Structure  and  function  of kidney-formation  of urine  methods  of studying renal function-renal  regulation  of acid-base  balance; physiological constituents  of urine-renal  failure-passive  venous  congestion-Urinary  recreation  in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.
1.5.5  Endocrine  glands  :  Functional  disorders,  their  symptoms  and  diagnosis.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion-hormonal receptors classification and function.
1.6. General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs : Cellular level
of pharmaco-dynamics  and pharmaco-kinetics-Drugs  acting on fluids and electrolyte balance-drugs  acting on Autonomic nervous system-Modern  concepts of anaesthesia and  dissociative  Anaesthetics-Autocoids-Antimicrobials  and  principles  of chemotherapy in microbial injections-use  of hormones in therapeutics-chemotherapy of parasitic infections-Drug  and economic persons in the Edible tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation : Assessment
of pollution  of water,  air and  soil-Importance  of climate  in animal  health-effect  of environment  on animal  function  and  performance-relationship   between industrialization and animal agriculture-animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows & sows, milking cows, broiler birds- stress, strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.
2. Animal Diseases :
2.1 Pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.
2.2 Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, pig and
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases-hard immunity-disease free zones-'zero' disease concept-chemoprophylaxis.
2.7 Anesthesia-local,  regional and general-pre-anesthetic  medication, Symptoms and
surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, Hernia, choking, abomassal displacement-Caesarian  operations, Rumenotomy-Castrations.
2.8   Disease    investigation    techniques-Materials    for    laboratory    investigation-
Establishment Animal Health Centres-Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health 
3.1 Zoonoses : Classification, definition; role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2.  Epidemiology  : Principles,  definition  of  epidemiological  terms,  application  of
epidemiological  measures  in the  study  of diseases  and  disease  control, Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.
3.3 Veterinary  Jurisprudence  : Rules and Regulations  for improvement  of animal quality and prevention  of animal diseases-state  and control Rules for prevention  of animal and animal product borne diseases-S.P. C.A.-veterolegal cases-certificates- Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1  Milk  Technology  :  Organization  of  rural  milk  procurement,  collection  and transport of raw milk.
Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage grades of whole milk, Skimmed milk and cream.
Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and
nutritive properties of the following milks : Pasteurized,  standardized,  toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, youghurt, Dahi, Lassi and  Srikhand.   Preparation   of  flavoured   and   sterlized   milks.   Legal   standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials, assembling, production,
processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food; Ice cream and  Kulfi;  by  products;  whey  products,  butter  milk,  lactose  and  casein.  Testing Grading,  judging  milk  products-BIS  and  Agmark  specifications,  legal  standards, quality  control  nutritive  properties.  Packaging,  processing  and  operational  control Costs.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene :
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management  of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations;  abattoir requirements  and designs; Meat inspection  procedures and  judgement  of  carcass  meat  cuts-drading   of  carcass  meat  cuts-duties   and functions of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat-spoilage of meat and control
measures-Post slaughter physicochemical  changes in meat and factors that influence them-quality improvement methods-Adulteration of meat and defection-Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2. Meat Technology
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of preservation   of  meat-curing,   canning,  irradiation,   packaging  of  meat  and  meat products; meat products and formulations.
5.3.  Byproducts  :  Slaughter  house  by  products  and  their  utilisation-Edible  and
inedible   byproducts-social   and   economic   implications   of   proper   utilisation   of slaughter house byproducts-Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4. Poultry  Products  Technology  : Chemical  composition  and nutritive  value  of
poultry   meat,   pre   slaughter   care   and   management.   Slaughtering   techniques, inspection,  preservation  of poultry  meat,  and  products.  Legal  and  BIS  standards. Structure,  composition  and nutritive  value of eggs. Microbial  spoilage.  Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of rabbit meat production.
Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.
6. Extension  : Basic  philosophy,  objectives,  concept  and  principles  of  extension.
Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology,   its  transfer   and  feedback.   Problems   of  constraints   in  transfer   of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure  and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology  in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.
Important   plant  diseases   caused  by  viruses,  bacteria,   mycoplasma,   fungi  and
nematodes.  Mode  of infection  and  dissemination.  Molecular  basis  of infection  and disease resistance/  defence. Physiology  of parasitism  and control measures.  Fungal toxins.
2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure  and reproduction from evolutonary  viewpoint. Distribution  of Cryptogams  in India and their economic potential.
3. Phanerogams:  Gymnosperms:  Concept  of Progymonosperms.  Classification  and
distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and Gnetales, their structures  and reproduction.  General account of Cycadofilicales,  Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
Angiosperms:   Systematics,    anatomy,   embryology,    palynology   and   phylogeny.
Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic  families-Magnoliaceae,  Ranunculaceae,  Brassicaceae  (Cruciferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae  (Composite),  Poaceae  (Gramineae),  Arecaceae  (Palmae),  Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata  and  their  types.  Anomalous  secondary  growth,  Anatomy  of C 3 and  C 4
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm- its  development   and  function.   Patterns   of  embryo  development.   Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:
Origin  of cultivated  plants,  Vavilov's  centres  of origin.  Plants  as sources  for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides,  timber, gums, resins and dyes.
Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in
Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis:  Totipotency,  polarity, symmetry  and differentiation.  Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
1.  Cell  Biology:  Techniques  of  Cell  Biology.  Prokaryotic  and  eukaryotic  cells  - structural and ultra structural details. Structure and function of extra cellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts,  mitochondria,  ER, ribosome's, embosoms, lissome,   peroxisomes, hydrogeno-some).  Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle.  Numerical  and  structural  variations  in chromosomes  and  their  significance. Study of polygene, lamp brush and B-chromosomes-structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development  of genetics, and gene
versus  allele  concepts  (Pseudo  alleles).  Quantitative  genetics  and  multiple  factors. Linkage and crossing over-methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sex linked inheritance, sex determination and  molecular  basis  of  sex  differentiation.  Mutation  (biochemical  and  molecular basis).  Cytoplasmic  inheritance  and  cytoplasmic  genes  (including  genetics  of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and
3. Plant  Breeding,  Biotechnology  and Biostatistics:  Methods  of plant  breeding- introduction,  selection  and hybridization  (pedigree,  backcross,  mass selection,  bulk method).  Male sterility  and heterosis  breeding.  Use of apomixes  in plant breeding. Micro   propagation   and   genetic   engineering-methods   of  transfer   of  genes   and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square  tests).  Probability  and distributions  (normal,  binomial  and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.
4.  Physiology   and  Biochemistry:   Water  relations,   Mineral   nutrition   and  ion
transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis-photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation  and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation- electron  transport  chain  and  oxidative  phosphorylation.  Chemiosmotic  theory  and ATP  synthesis.  Nitrogen  fixation  and  nitrogen  metabolism.  Enzymes,  coenzymes, energy  transfer  and  energy  conservation.   Importance   of  secondary   metabolites. Pigments  as photoreceptors  (plastidial  pigments  and phytochrome).  Photoperiodism and flowering,  vernalization,  senescence.  Growth substances-their  chemical  nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture,  growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.
5.  Ecology  and  Plant  Geography:  Ecological  factors.  Concepts  and  dynamics  of
community.   Plant   succession.   Concepts   of   biosphere.   Ecosystems   and   their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).
Forest types of India -- afforestation,  deforestation  and social forestry.  Endangered plants,  endemism  and  Red  Data  Books.  Bio-diversity.   Convention   of  Biological Diversity,  Sovereign  Rights and Intellectual  Property  Rights. Biogeochemical  cyeles. Global warming. 

1. Atomic structure
Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrödinger wave equation (time independent).   Interpretation   of  wave  function,   particle  in  one-dimensional   box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics,  polarities  of bonds in molecules  and their dipole moments.  Valence bond theory,  concept  of resonance  and resonance  energy.  Molecular  orbital  theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2+, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-,  BeH2  and  CO2.  Comparison  of valence  bond  and molecular  oribtal  theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.
Forms of solids, law of constancy  of interfacial  angles, crystal systems  and crystal classes (crystallographic  groups). Designation  of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational  indices.  Bragg's  law. X-ray diffraction  by crystals.  Close packing,   radius   ratio   rules,   calculation   of  some   limiting   radius   ratio   values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid crystals.
4. The gaseous state
Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquification of gases and critical   phenomena,   Maxwell's   distribution   of  speeds,   intermolecular   collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics
Thermodynamic  systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics,  work done on the systems  and heat absorbed  in different types of processes;  calorimetry,  energy  and enthalpy  changes  in various  processes and their temperature dependence. 
Second  law  of  thermodynamics;  entropy  as  a  state  function,  entropy  changes  in various   process,   entropy-reversibility   and  irreversibility,   Free   energy   functions; criteria  for equilibrium,  relation  between  equilibrium  constant  and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.
Micro  and  macro  states;  canonical  ensemble  and  canonical   partition  function;
electronic,   rotational   and   vibrational   partition   functions   and   thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.
6. Phase equilibria and solutions
Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron  equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids-upper and lower critical solution temperatures;  partial molar quantities,  their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.
7. Electrochemistry
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current
density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques-voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical kinetics
Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for  zeroth,  first,  second  and  fractional  order  reactions.  Rate  equations  involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on  rate  constant.  Study  of  fast  reactions  by  stop-flow  and  relaxation  methods. Collisions and transition state theories.
9. Photochemistry
Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis
Adsorption from gages and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms- Langmuir  and B.E.T.  isotherms;  determination  of surface  area, characteristics  and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry
Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular   mechanism),   ionophores,   photosynthesis-PSI,   PSII;  nitrogen   fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry
(a) Electronic configurations;  introduction  to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes.   Valence   bond   theory,   crystal   field   theory   and   its   modifications; applications  of theories  in the explanation  of magnetism  and electronic  spactra  of metal complexes.
(b)  Isomerism  in  coordination   compounds.   IUPAC  nomenclature   of  coordination
compounds;  stereochemistry   of  complexes  with  4  and  6  coordination  numbers; chelate  effect  and  polynuclear  complexes;  trans  effect  and  its theories;  kinetics  of substitution   reactions   in  square-planer   complexes;   thermodynamic   and  kinetic stability of complexes.
(c)  Synthesis   and  structures   of  metal  carbonyls;   carboxylate   anions,  carbonyl
hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d)  Complexes  with  aromatic  systems,  synthesis,  structure  and  bonding  in  metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation,  oxidative  addition  reactions,  insertion  reactions,  fluxional  molecules and  their  characterization.  Compounds  with  metal-metal  bonds  and  metal  atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of 'f' block elements
Lanthanides   and  actinides;  separation,   oxidation   states,  magnetic  and  spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents 
Reactions  in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination  model  of  non-aqueous  solvents.  Some  highly  acidic  media,  fluoro- sulphuric acid and super acids.
1.   Delocalised   covalent   bonding   :   Aromaticity,   anti-aromaticity;   annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
2 (a) Reaction  mechanisms  : General  methods  (both  kinetic  and  non-kinetic)  of
study  of  mechanism  or  organic  reactions  illustrated  by  examples-use  of  isotopes, cross-over  experiment,  intermediate  trapping,  stereochemistry;  energy  diagrams  of simple organic reactions-transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
(b) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of
and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.
(c) Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1', SN2', SNi' and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds-pyrrole, thiophene, indole.
(d)  Elimination  reactions  :  E1,  E2  and  E1cb  mechanisms;   orientation  in  E2
reactions-Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination-acetate  pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
(e) Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(f)  Rearrangements   :  Pinacol-pinacolune,   Hoffmann,  Beckmann,   Baeyer-Villiger,
Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.
3. Pericyclic  reactions  : Classification  and examples;  Woodward-Hoffmann  rules- clectrocyclic  reactions, cycloaddition  reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic  shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions : Aldol condensation (including directed
aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen,  Wolff-Kishner,  Cannizzaro  and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler- Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
5. Polymeric Systems
(a) Physical  chemistry  of polymers  : Polymer  solutions  and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular  weights by sedimentation,  light scattering,  osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
(b)  Preparation   and  properties  of  polymers  :  Organic  polymers-polyethylene,
polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers-phosphonitrilic  halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na- Liquid NH3, LiA1H4, NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemistry  : Photochemical  reactions of simple organic compounds, excited
and  ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation
(a) Rotational spectra-diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
(b) Vibrational spectra-diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific
frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states. N->π* and π->π* transitions; application  to conjugated  double bonds and conjugated  carbonyls-Woodward-Fieser rules.
(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H1 NMR to simple organic molecules.
(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daughter peak, metastable peak,
fragmentation of simple organic molecules; £-cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement.
(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals. 
Section A
(a) Fluid and Particle Dynamics
Viscosity of fluids. Laminar and turbulent flows. Equation of continuity and Navier- Stokes equition-Bernoulli's  theorem. Flow meters. Fluid drag and pressure drop due to friction, Reynold's Number and friction factor - effect of pipe roughness. Economic pipe diameter. Pumps, water, air/steam jet ejectors, compressors,  blowers and fans. Agitation and mixing of liquids. Mixing of solids and pastes.  Crushing and Grinding - principles  and  equipment.  Rittinger's  and  Bond's  laws.  Filtration  and  filtration equipment.  Fluid-particle  mechanics  - free and hindered  settling.  Fluidisation  and minimum fluidization velocity, concepts of compressible and incompressible flow. Transport of Solids.
(b) Mass Transfer
Molecular  diffusion  coefficients,  First and second  law and diffusion,  mass  transfer coefficients,  film  and  penetration  theories  of  mass  transfer.  Distillation,  simple distillation, relative volatility, fractional distillation, plate and packed columns for distillation. Calculation of theoretical number of plates. Liquid-liquid equilibria. Extraction - theory and practice; Design of gas-absorption columns. Drying. Humidification, dehumidification. Crystallisation. Design of equipment.
(c) Heat Transfer
Conduction, thermal conductivity, extended surface heat transfer.
Convection - free and forced. Heat transfer coefficients - Nusselt Number. LMTD and effectiveness.  NTU  methods  for the  design  of Double  Pipe  and Shell  & Tube  Heat Exchangers.  Analogy  between  heat  and momentum  transfer.  Boiling  and condensation heat transfer. Single and multiple-effect evaporators. Rediation - Stefan- Boltzman Law, emissivity and absorptivity.
Calculation of heat load of a furnace. Solar heaters.
Section B
(d) Noval Separation Processes
Equilibrium  separation  processes  – ion-exchange,  osmosis,  electro-dialysis,  reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration and other membrane processes. Molecular distillation. super critical fluid extraction.
(e) Process Equipment Design
Factors  affecting  vessel  design  criteria  -  Cost  considerations.   Design  of  storage vessels-vertical,  horizontal spherical, underground  tanks for atmospheric and higher pressure. Design of closures flat and elliptical head. Design of supports. Materials of construction-characteristics and selection.
(f) Process Dynamics and Control
Measuring instruments for process variables like level, pressure, flow, temperature pH and concentration  with indication  in visual/pneumatic/analog/digital signal forms. Control  variable,  manipulative  variable  and  load  variables.  Linear  control  theory- Laplace, transforms. PID controllers. Block diagram representation transient and frequency response, stability of closed loop system. Advanced control strategies. Computer based process control. 

(a) Material and Energy Balances
Section A 
Material  and  energy  balance  calculations  in processes  with  recycle/bypass/purge. Combustion of solid/ liquid/gaseous fuels, stoichiometric relationships and excess air requirements. Adiabatic flame temperature.
(b) Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
Laws  of  thermodynamics.   PVT  relationships  for  pure  components  and  mixtures. Energy  functions and inter-relationships  - Maxwell's relations. Fugacity, activity and chemical potential. Vapour-liquid equilibria, for ideal/non-ideal, single and multi- component  systems. criteria for chemical reaction equilibrium,  equilibrium  constant and equilibrium conversions. Thermodynamic cycles - refrigeration and power.
(c) Chemical Reaction Engineering : 
Batch reactors - kinetics of homogeneous reactions and interpretation of kinetic data. Ideal flow reactors - CSTR, plug flow reactors and their performance equations. Temperature effects and run-away reactions. Heterogeneous reactions – catalytic and non-catalytic and gas-solid and gas-liquid reactions. Intrinsic kinetics and global rate concept. Importance of inter-phase and intra-particle mass transfer on performance. Effectiveness factor. Isothermal and non-isothermal reactors and reactor stability.
Section B
(d) Chemical Technology
Natural organic products  - Wood and wood-based  chemicals,  pulp and paper, Agro industries  - sugar,  Edible  oils  extraction  (including  tree  based  seeds),  Soaps  and detergents.  Essential  oils  – Biomass  gasification  (including  biogas).  Coal  and  coal chemical. Petroleum and Natural gas-Petroleum refining (Atomospheric distillation/cracking/reforming) - Petrochemical industries – Polyethylenes (LDPE/HDPE/LLDPE),    Polyvinyl   Chloride,   Polystyrene.   Ammonia   manufacture. Cement and lime industries. Paints and varnishes. Glass and ceremics. Fermentation
- alcohol and antibiotics.
(e) Environmental Engineering and Safety
Ecology and Environment. Sources of pollutants in air and water. Green house effect, ozone  layer  depletion,  acid  rain.  Micrometeorology  and  dispersion  of pollutants  in environment. Measurement techniques of pollutant levels and their control strategies. Solid wastes, their hazards and their disposal  techniques.  Design and performance analysis of pollution control equipment.  Fire and explosion hazards rating - HAZOP and HAZAN. Emergency planning, disaster management. Environmental legislations - water, air environment protection Acts. Forest (Conservation) Act.
(f) Process Engineering Economics :
Fixed  and  working  capital  requirement   for  a  process  industry  and  estimation methods.  Cost  estimation  and  comparison  of  alternatives.  Net  present  value  by discounted  cash  flow.  Pay  back  analysis.  IRR,  Depreciation,  taxes  and  insurance. Break-even  point  analysis.  Project  scheduling  -  PERT  and  CPM.  Profit  and  loss account,  balance  sheet  and  financial  statement.  Plant  location  and  plant  layout including piping.
Units and Dimensions,  SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent,  Non Concurrent  and parallel  forces in a plane, moment  of force and Varignon's theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.
First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings. Kinematics and Kinetics :
Kinematics  in  Cartesian  and  Polar  Coordinates,  motion  under  uniform  and  non- uniform  acceleration,  motion  under  gravity.  Kinetics  of  particle  : Momentum  and Energy principles, D' Alembert's Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion, Flywheel.
Simple  Stress  and  Strain,  Elastic  constants,  axially  loaded  compression  members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear. Deflection  of beams : Mecaulay's  method, Mohr's Moment area  method,   Conjugate   beam   method,   unit  load  method.   Torsion   of  Shafts, Transmission  of  power,  close  coiled  helical  springs,  Elastic  stability  of  columns, Euler's  Rankine's  and  Secant  formulae.  Principal  Stresses  and  Strains  in  two dimensions,  Mohr's  Circle,  Theories  of  Elastic  Failure,  Thin  and  Thick  cylinder  : Stresses due to internal and external pressure-Lame's equations.
Castiglianio's theorems I and II, unit load method, method of consistent deformation applied  to  beams  and  pin  jointed  trusses.  Slope-deflection,  moment  distribution, Kani's  method  of  analysis  and  column  Analogy  method  applied  to  indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Rolling  loads  and  Influences  lines  : Influences  lines  for Shear  Force  and  Bending
moment  at  a  section  of  a  beam.  Criteria  for  maximum  shear  force  and  bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
Arches : Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.
Matrix methods of analysis : Force method and displacement  method of analysis of
indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic  Analysis  of beams and frames  : Theory  of plastic bending,  plastic  analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.
Unsymmetrical  bending  : Moment  of inertia,  product  of inertia,  position  of Neutral
Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.
Structural Steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections.  Design  of tension  and compression  members,  beams  of built up section,  rivetted  and welded  plate girders,  gantry  girders,  stancheons  with battens and lacings, slab and gusseted column bases.
Design of highway and railway bridges : Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder,  Pratt truss.
Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design-Recommendations  of I.S. codes design of one way and two way slabs, stair- case  slabs,   simple   and  continuous   beams   of  rectangular,   T  and  L  sections. Compression  members  under direct load with or without  eccentricity,  Isolated  and combined footings.
Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.
Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.
Prestressed concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and
design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress. Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes.
Design of masonry retaining walls.
Fluid  Mechanics  :  Fluid  properties  and  their  role  in  fluid  motion,  fluid  statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
Kinematics  and Dynamics  of Fluid  flow : Velocity  and  accelerations,  stream  lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions,  flownet, methods of drawing flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation, free and forced vortices.
Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes  equation, Euler's equation of motion, application  to fluid flow problems,  pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary  and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Buckingham's Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory, model laws, undistorted and distorted models.
Laminar  Flow : Laminar  flow between  parallel,  stationary  and moving  plates, flow
through tube.
Boundary layer : Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub- layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.
Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics  of turbulent flow, velocity distribution
and    variation  of  pipe  friction  factor,  hydraulic  grade  line  and  total  energy  line, 
siphons, expansion and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes and surge tanks.
Open  channel  flow  :  Uniform  and  non-uniform  flows,  momentum  and  energy
correction   factors,   specific  energy  and  specific  force,  critical   depth,  resistance equations   and  variation   of  roughness   coefficient,   rapidly   varied   flow,  flow  in contractions,  flow at sudden drop, hydraulic  jump and its applications  surges and waves,  gradually  varied  flow, classification  of surface  profiles,  control  section,  step method of integration of varied flow equation, moving surges and hydraulic bore. HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND HYDROPOWER :
Centrifugal pumps-Types, characteristics, Net Positive Suction Height (NPSH), specific speed. Pumps in parallel.
Reciprocating  pumps,  Airvessels,  Hydraulic  ram, efficiency  parameters,  Rotary  and positive displacement pumps, diaphragm and jet pumps.
Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.
Principles  of hydropower  development.  Type, layouts  and Component  works. Surge tanks,  types  and  choice.  Flow  duration  curves  and  dependable  flow.  Storage  an pondage. Pumped storage plants. Special features of mini, micro-hydel plants.
Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits particles size distribution, classifications of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.
Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcy's Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.
Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi's
theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test.
Compaction of soil, field control of compaction. Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients.
Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests.
Earth  pressure  at rest,  acive  and  passive  pressures,  Rankine's  theory,  Coulomb's wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation. Bearing  capacity,  Terzaghi  and  other  important  theories,  net  and  gross  bearing pressure.
Immediate and consolidation settlement.
Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number.
Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests, pressure meter tests.
Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation,  stress  distribution  in  soils,  Boussinessq's  theory,  Newmarks's  chart, pressure  bulb, contact pressure,  applicability  of different  bearing capacity  theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable settlement.
Proportioning  of footing, isolated  and combined  footings,  rafts, buoyancy  rafts, Pile
foundation,  types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups,  pile load test, settlement  of piles, lateral capacity.  Foundation  for Bridges. Ground  improvement  techniques-preloading,  sand  drains,  stone  column,  grouting, soil stabilisation.
1. Construction Technology :
Engineering Materials :
Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete, Properties of freshly mixed and  hardened  concrete,  Flooring  Tiles,  use  of  ferrocement,  fibre-reinforced   and polymer   concrete,   high  strength   concrete   and  light  weight  concrete.   Timber  : 
Properties and uses; defects in timber; seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber  and  damp-proofing   materials,   termite  proofing,  Materials,   for  Low  cost housing.
Construction :
Building  components  and  their  functions;  Brick  masonry  : Bonds,  jointing.  Stone masonry.   Design  of  Brick  masonry   walls  as  per  I.S.  codes,  factors  of  safety, serviceability  and  strength  requirements;  plastering,  pointing.  Types  of  Floors  & Roofs. Ventilators, Repairs in buildings.
Functional planning of building : Building orientation, circulation, grouping of areas, privacy concept and design of energy efficient building; provisions of National Building Code.
Building estimates and specifications; Cost of works; valuation.
2. Construction Equipment :
Standard and special types of equipment, Preventive maintenance and repair, factors affecting the selection of equipment,  economical  life, time and motion study, capital and maintenance cost.
Concreting equipments : Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete pump.
Earth-work equipment : Power shovel hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors,
rollers, sheep foot roller.
3. Construction  Planning and Management  : Construction  activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control and supervision. Cost reduction measures.
New-work  analysis  : CPM  and  PERT  analysis,  Float  Times,  cashing  of  activities,
contraction  of network  for cost optimization,  updating,  Cost analysis  and resource allocation.
Elements  of Engineering  Economics,  methods  of appraisal,  present  worth,  annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives  including levels of investments. Project profitability.
Survey : Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, leveling   traverse   survey,   triangulation   survey,   corrections,   and   adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments    for above purposes. Tacheometry. Circular and transition curves. Principles of photo-grammetry.
Railways  : Permanent  way, sleepers,  rail fastenings,  ballast,  points and crossings,
design of turn outs, stations and yards, turntables,  signals, and interlocking,  level- crossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways : Super-elevation,  creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort, relaying of track.
Highway   Engineering   :  Principles   of  highway   planning,   Highway   alignments.
Geometrical  design : Cross section, camber, super-elevation,  horizontal  and vertical curves. Classification  of roads : low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure and strengthening.
Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface drainage.
Traffic Engineering : Forecasting techniques origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals,
street lighting; Traffic surveys. Principle of highway financing.
Hydrology  : Hydrological  cycle,  precipitation,  evaporation,  transpiration,  depression storage,   infiltration,   overland   flow,  hydrograph,   flood  frequency   analysis,   flood estimation,   flood  routing  through  a  reservoir,  channel  flow  routing-Muskingam method.
Ground  water  flow  : Specific  yield,  storage  coefficient,  coefficient  of permeability,
confined and unconfined  aquifers, aquitards,  radial flow into a well under confined 
and unconfined conditions, tube wells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.
WATER RESOURCES  ENGINEERING  : Ground  and surface  water resource,  single
and multipurpose  projects, storage capacity of reservoirs,  reservoir  losses, reservoir sedimentation, economics of water resources projects.
IRRIGATION  ENGINEERING  :  Water  requirements  of  crops  :  consumptive  use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies. Canals  :  Distribution  systems  for  canal  irrigation,  canal  capacity,  canal  losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design,  regime  theory,  critical  shear  stress,  bed  load,  local  and  suspended  load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlined canals, drainage behind lining.
Water logging : causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.
Canal structures : Design of cross regulators, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.
Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable
foundation, Khosla's theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders. Storage  works : Types of dams, design, principles  of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage. Spillways : Spillway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.
Water  Supply  : Estimation  of surface  and  subsurface  water  resources,  predicting demand for water, impurities, of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake  of water  : pumping  and  gravity  schemes.  Water  treatment  : principles  of
coagulation,   flocculation   and   sedimentation;    slow-;   rapid-,   pressure-,   filters;
chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
Water storage and distribution  : storage and balancing reservoirs : types, location and  capacity.  Distribution  system  : layout,  hydraulics  of  pipe  lines,  pipe  fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance  of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.
Sewage  systems  :  Domestic  and  industrial  wastes,  storm  sewage-separate   and
combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon. Plumbing in public buildings.
Sewage characterization  : BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC.
Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage  treatment  :  Working  principles,  units,  chambers,  sedimentation  tanks, trickling  filters,  oxidation  ponds,  activated  sludge  process,  septic  tank,  disposal  of sludge, recycling of waste water.
Solid waste : collection  and disposal  in rural and urban contexts,  management  of
long-term ill-effects.
Environmental   pollution   :  Sustainable   development.   Radioactive   wastes   and disposal.   Environmental  impact assessment  for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.
PAPER-I Section A
1. Silviculture - General :
General  Silvicultural  Principles  : ecological  and  physiological  factors  influencing vegetation,  natural  and  artificial  regeneration  of  forests;  methods  of  propagation, grafting  techniques;  site  factors;  nursery  and  planting  techniques-nursery   beds, polybags  and  maintenance,  water  budgeting,  grading  and  hardening  of  seedlings; special approaches; establishment and tending.
2. Silviculture - systems :
Clear felling, uniform shelter wood selection, coppice and conversion systems. Management  of silviculture  systems  of temperate,  subtropical,  humid  tropical,  dry 
tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, enrichment methods, technical constraints, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.
3. Silviculture - Mangrove and Cold desert :
Mangrove : habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-establishment  and rehabilitation  of degraded  mangrove  formations;  silvicultural  systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters.
Cold desert - Characteristics, identification and management of species.
4. Silviculture of trees :
Traditional and recent advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture  of some of the economically  important  species in India such as Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Albizzia procera, Anthocephalus  Cadamba, Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma,   Cassia   siamea,Casuarina   equisetifolia,   Cedrus   deodara,   Chukrasia tabularis,  Dalbergia  sisoo,  Dipterocarpus  spp.,  Emblica  officindils,  Eucalyptus  spp, Gmelina  Arborea,  Hardwickia   binata,  Largerstroemia   Lanceolata,   Pinus  roxburghi, Populus spp, Pterocarpus marsupium, Prosopis
juliflora, Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Tectona grandis, Terminalis tomemtosa, Tamarindus indica.
Section B
1. Agroforestry, Social Forestry, Joint Forest Management and Tribology : Agroforestry  - scope and necessity; role in the life of people and domestic animals and  in  integrated   land  use,  planning   especially   related  to  (i)  soil  and  water conservation;  (ii) water  recharge;  (iii) nutrient  availability  to crops;  (iv) nature  and ecosystem    preservation    including    ecological    balances    through    pest-predator relationships  and (v) providing  opportunities  for enhancing  bio-diversity,  medicinal and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones; selection  of  species  and  role  of  multipurpose  trees  and  NTFPs,  techniques,  food, fodder and fuel security. Research and Extension needs.
Social/Urban Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.
JFM - principles, objectives, methodology, scope, benefits and role of NGOs.
Tribology  -  tribal  scene  in  India;  tribes,  concept  of  races,  principles  of  social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, cultural tradition, customs, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.
2. Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :
Forests Soils: classification,  factors affecting soil formation; physical, chemical and biological properties.
Soil conservation  - definition,  causes for erosion; types - wind and water erosion;
conservation and management of eroded soils/areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of saline and alkaline soils, water logged and other waste lands. Role of forests in conserving soils. Maintenance  and build up of soil organic matter, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; forest leaf litter and composting; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating soils; N and C cycles, VAM.
Watershed Management - concepts of watershed; role of mini-forests and forest trees
in overall resource management,  forest hydrology, watershed development in respect of torrent control, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation  of degraded  areas; hilly and mountain  areas; watershed  management and environmental  functions  of forests;  water-harvesting  and conservation;  ground water   recharge   and   watershed   management;   role   of   integrating   forest   trees, horticultural crops, field crops, grass and fodders.
3. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :
Environment; components and importance, principles of conservation, impact of deforestation; forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects, population growth on environment.
Pollution  - types, global  warming,  green house  effects,  ozone  layer depletion,  acid
rain, impact and control measures, environmental monitoring; concept of sustainable development.  Role  of trees  and forests  in environmental  conservation;  control  and prevention of air, water and noise pollution. Environmental  policy and legislation in 
India. Environmental Impact Assessment. Economics assessment of watershed development vis-a-vis ecological and environmental protection.
4. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology :
General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance,  seed  source,  exotics;  quantitative  aspects  of  forest  tree  improvement, seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement,  genetic testing programming,  selection and breeding for resistance to diseases, insects, and adverse environment; the genetic base, forest genetic  resources  and  gene  conservation  in  situ  and  ex-situ.  Cost  benefit  ratio, economic evaluation.
Section A
1. Forest Management and Management Systems :
Objective and principles; techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation;  rotation,  normal  forest, growing  stock; regulation  of yield; management  of forest  plantations,  commercial  forests,  forest  cover  monitoring.  Approaches  viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) strategic planning, (iii) Approval, sanction and expenditure, (iv)  Monitoring  (v)  Reporting  and  governance.  Details  of  steps  involved  such  as formation of Village Forest Committees, Joint Forest Participatory Management.
2. Forest Working Plan :
Forest  planning,  evaluation  and  monitoring  tools  and  approaches  for  integrated planning; multipurpose development of forest resources and forest industries development; working plans and working schemes, their role in nature conservation, bio-diversity  and  other  dimensions;  preparation  and  control.  Divisional  Working Plans, Annual Plan of Operations.
3. Forest Mensuration and Remote Sensing :
Methods  of  measuring  - diameter,  girth,  height  and  volume  of  trees;  form-factor; volume  estimation  of  stand,  current  annual  increment;  mean  annual  increment. Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield calculation; yield and stand tables, forest cover monitoring through remote
sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modeling.
4. Surveying and Forest Engineering :
Forest surveying - different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles  of  forest  engineering.  Building  materials  and  construction.  Roads  and Bridges; General principles, objects, types, simple design and construction  of timber bridges.
Section B
1. Forest Ecology and Ethnobotany :
Forest ecology - Biotic and aboitic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; vegetation concepts, ecological succession and climax, primary productivity, nutrient  cycling  and  water  relations;  physiology  in  stress  environments  (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Forest types in India, identification  of species, composition and associations; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment  of herbaria  and  arboreta.  Conservation  of forest  ecosystems.  Clonal parks, Role of Ethnobotany  in Indian Systems of Medicine;  Ayurveda  and Unani - Introduction, nomenclature,  habitat, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic  plants.  Factors  affecting  action and toxicity  of drug plants and their chemical constituents.
2.  Forest  Resources  and  Utilization  :  Environmentally  sound  forest  harvesting
practices;  logging  and extraction  techniques  and principles,  transportation  system, storage  and sale; Non-Timber  Forest Products  (NTFPs)  definition  and scope; gums, resins, oleoresins,  fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, canes, bamboos, medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, Katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal. Need  and  importance  of  wood  seasoning  and  preservation;  general  principles  of seasoning, air and kiln seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns.    Composite    wood;    adhesives-manufacture,     properties,    uses,    plywood manufacture-properties,   uses,  fibre  boards-manufacture   properties,  uses;  particle boards manufacture;  properties uses. Present status of composite  wood industry in 
India in future expansion plans.  Pulp-paper and rayon; present position of supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood; problems and possibilities.
Anatomical structure of wood, defects and abnormalities of wood, timber identification
- general principles.
3. Forest Protection & Wildlife Biology :
Injuries to forest - abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects  of  air  pollution  on  forests  and  forest  die  back.  Susceptibility  of  forests  to damage, nature of damage, cause, prevention, protective measures and benefits due to chemical and biological control. General forest protection  against fire, equipment and methods, controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations  after  natural  disasters.  Role  of afforestation  and  forest  regeneration  in absorption  of CO2.  Rotational  and controlled  grazing,  different  methods  of control against grazing and browsing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human   impacts;   encroachment,   poaching,   grazing,   live   fencing,   theft,   shifting cultivation and control.
4. Forest Economics and Legislation :
Forest  economics:   fundamental   principles,   cost-benefit   analyses;  estimation   of demand and supply; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes  in  production  and  consumption  patterns;  assessment  and  projection  of market structures; role of private sector and co-operatives; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest goods and service.
Legislation-History  of  forest  development;  Indian  Forest  Policy  of  1894,  1952  and
1990. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People's involvement, Joint Forest Management, Involvement  of women; Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber   products,   sustainable   forest   management;   industrialization   policies; institutional    and    structural    changes.    Decentralization    and    Forestry    Public Administration.  Forest  laws,  necessity;  general  principles,  Indian  Forest  Act 1927; Forest Conservation  Act, 1980; Wildlife Protection Act 1972 and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest nventory. GEOLOGY
(i) General Geology
The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes,  effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismongraphs. Island arcs,  deep  sea  trenches   and  mid-ocean   ridges.  Continental   driftevidences   and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote Sensing
Basic concepts of geomorphology.  Weathering  and mass wasting. Landforms,  slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures  and  lithology.  Applications  of geomorphology  in mineral  prospecting, civil engineering, hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
Aerial  photographs  and  their  interpretation-merits   and  limitations.  The  Electron-
magnetic  Spectrum.  Orbiting  satellites  and sensor systems.  Indian Remote Sensing Satellites.  Satellites  data  products.  Applications  of remote  sensing  in geology.  The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.
(iii) Structural geology
Principles  of  geologic  mapping  and  map  reading,  projection  diagrams,  stress  and strain   ellipsoid   and   stress-strain   relationships   of  elastic,   plastic   and   viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation  conditions.  Folds  and  faults  classification  and  mechanics.  Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities.   Superposed 
deformation. Time-relationship  between crystallization  and deformation. Introduction to petro-fabrics. 

(iv) Paleontology
Species-   definition   and   nomenclature.   Megafossils   and   Microfossils.   Modes   of preservation  of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils.  Application  of microfossils  in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: litho-stratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic  and magneto-stratigraphic  and  their  interrelationships. Distribution  and classification  of Precambrian  rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions,  paleogeography  and igneous  activity  in the Indian  subcontinent  in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi)  Hydrogeology   and  Engineering   Geology   :  Hydrologic   cycle   and   genetic
classification of water. Movement of subsurface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic   conductivity,   transmissivity   and   storage   coefficient,   classification   of aquifers. Water-bearing characteristics
of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management  of groundwater.  Rainwater harvesting. Engineering  properties of rocks. Geological   investigations   for  dams,  tunnels  and  bridges.  Rock  as  construction material. Alkali-aggregate  reaction. Landslides-causes,  prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant  structures. 

(i) Mineralogy
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.
Petrological  microscope  and accessories.  Optical properties of common rock forming
minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification  of  silicates.  Common  minerals  of  igneous  and  metamorphic  rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology :
Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside- anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle. Magmatic differentation   and   assimilation.   Petrogenetic   significance   of   the   textures   and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic  groups,  charnockite,  anorthosite  and alkaline  rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
Types and agents of metamporphism.  Metamporphic  grades and zones. Phase rule.
Facies of regional and contact metamorphism.  ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures  of metamporphic  rocks.  Metamorphism  of arenaceous,  argillaceous  and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
(iii) Sedimentology
Sedimentary  rocks: Processes of formation, diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments.   Clastic   and   non-clastic   rocks-their   classification,   petrography   and depositional    environment.    Sedimentary    facies    and    provenance.    Sedimentary 
structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India. 

(iv) Economic Geology
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification  of ore deposits. Process of formation   of  minerals   deposits.   Controls   of  ore  localisation.   Ore  textures  and structures.  Metallogenic  epochs  and  provinces.  Geology  of  the  important  Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium  and  thorium  and  industrial  minerals.  Deposits  of coal  and  petroleum  in India.  National  Mineral  Policy.  Conservation  and  utilization  of  mineral  resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques  of sampling.  Estimation  of reserves  or ore. Mehtods  of exploration  and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology
Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition  of earth and distribution  of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types  of chemical bonds, coordination  number. Isolmorphism  and polymorphism.   Elementary   thermodynamics.   Natural   hazards-floods,   landslides, coastal  erosion,  earthquakes  and  volcanic  activity  and  mitigation.  Environmental impact of urbanization,  open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash.
Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment protection legislative measures in India. 

Linear Algebra
Paper-I Section-A 
Vector, space, linear dependence  and independence,  subspaces,  bases, dimensions. Finite dimensional vector spaces.
Matrices, Cayley-Hamiliton  theorem, Eigen values and Eigenvectors,  matrix of linear
transformation,  row and column  reduction,  Echelon  form, equivalence,  congruence and similarity, reduction to canonical form, rank, orthogonal, symmetrical, skew symmetrical, unitary, hermitian, skew-hermitian forms their Eigen values. Orthogonal and unitary reduction  of quadratic  and hermitian  forms, positive definite quadratic forms.
Real  numbers,  limits,  continuity,  differentiability,   mean-value  theorems,  Taylor's theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes. Functions of several variables: continuity, differentiability, partial derivatives, maxima and  minima,  Lagrange's  method  of  multipliers,  Jacobian.  Riemann's  definition  of definite  integrals,  indefinite  integrals,  infinite  and  improper  integrals,  beta  and gamma  functions.  Double  and  triple  integrals  (evaluation  techniques  only).  Areas, surface and volumes, centre of gravity.
Analytic Geometry :
Cartesian   and  polar  coordinates   in  two  and  three  dimensions,   second  degree equations in two and three dimensions, reduction to canonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines, plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.
Ordinary Differential Equations :
Formulation  of differential  equations, order and degree, equations of first order and first  degree,  integrating  factor,  equations  of  first  order  but  not  of  first  degree, Clariaut's  equation,  singular  solution.  Higher order linear equations,  with constant coefficients, complementary  function and particular integral, general solution, Euler- Cauchy equation. 
Second  order linear equations  with variable  coefficients,  determination  of complete solution when one solution is known, method of variation of parameters.
Dynamics, Statics and Hydrostatics :
Degree  of  freedom  and  constraints,  rectilinear  motion,  simple  harmonic  motion, motion in a plane, projectiles, constrained motion, work and energy, conservation of energy,  motion  under  impulsive  forces,  Kepler's  laws,  orbits  under  central  forces, motion of varying mass, motion under resistance.
Equilibrium  of a system  of particles,  work  and potential  energy,  friction,  common catenary,  principle  of virtual work, stability  of equilibrium,  equilibrium  of forces in three dimensions.
Pressure of heavy fluids, equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces Bernoulli's
equation, centre of pressure, thrust on curved surfaces, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of equilibrium, metacentre, pressure of gases.
Vector Analysis :
Scalar and vector fields, triple, products, differentiation of vector function of a scalar variable,   gradient,   divergence   and  curl  in  cartesian,   cylindrical   and  spherical coordinates   and  their  physical   interpretations.   Higher  order  derivatives,   vector identities and vector equations.
Application to Geometry: Curves in space, curvature and torsion. Serret-Frenet's formulae, Gauss and Stokes' theorems, Green's identities.
Paper-II Section-A
Groups,  subgroups,  normal  subgroups,  homomorphism  of groups  quotient  groups basic  isomorphism  theorems,  Sylow's  group,  permutation  groups,  Cayley  theorem. Rings   and   ideals,   principal   ideal   domains,   unique   factorization   domains   and Euclidean domains. Field extensions, finite fields.
Real Analysis :
Real number system, ordered sets, bounds, ordered field, real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property, Cauchy sequence, completeness, Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact   sets.   Riemann   integral,   improper   integrals,   absolute   and   conditional convergence  of series of real and complex  terms, rearrangement  of series. Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability  and integrability for sequences and series of functions.  Differentiation  of  functions  of several  variables,  change  in  the  order  of partial derivatives, implicit function theorem, maxima and minima. Multiple integrals. Complex Analysis :
Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann  equations,  Cauchy's  theorem,  Cauchy's integral formula,  power  series,  Taylor's  series,  Laurent's   Series,  Singularities,   Cauchy's residue theorem, contour integration. Conformal mapping, bilinear transformations. Linear Programming :
Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution, graphical method and Simplex method of solutions. Duality. Transportation and assignment problems. Travelling salesman problems.
Partial differential equations:
Curves and surfaces in three dimensions, formulation of partial differential equations, solutions of equations of type dx/p=dy/q=dz/r; orthogonal trajectories, Pfaffian differential  equations;  partial  differential  equations  of  the  first  order,  solution  by Cauchy's method of characteristics; Charpit's method of solutions, linear partial differential  equations  of  the  second  order  with  constant  coefficients,  equations  of vibrating string, heat equation, laplace equation.
Numerical Analysis and Computer programming:
Numerical  methods:  Solution  of  algebraic  and  transcendental   equations  of  one variable by bisection, Regula-Falsi and Newton-Raphson  methods, solution of system of  linear  equations  by  Gaussian  elimination  and  Gauss-Jordan  (direct)  methods, Gauss-Seidel(iterative)   method.  Newton's  (Forward  and  backward)  and  Lagrange's method of interpolation. 
Numerical   integration:   Simpson's   one-third   rule,   trapezoidal   rule,   Gaussian quadrature formula.
Numerical  solution  of ordinary  differential  equations:  Euler  and  Runge  Kutta-
Computer Programming:  Storage of numbers in Computers, bits, bytes and words, binary  system.  arithmetic  and  logical  operations  on  numbers.  Bitwise  operations. AND, OR , XOR, NOT, and shift/rotate  operators.  Octal and Hexadecimal  Systems. Conversion to and Form decimal Systems.
Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers.
Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.
Developing simple programs in Basic for problems involving techniques covered in the numerical analysis.
Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics :
Generalised coordinates, constraints, holonomic and non-holonomic, systems. D'Alembert's  principle  and  Lagrange'  equations,  Hamilton  equations,  moment  of intertia, motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions.
Equation of continuity, Euler's equation of motion for inviscid flow, stream-lines, path
of a particle,  potential  flow, two-dimensional  and axisymetric  motion,  sources  and sinks, vortex motion, flow past a cylinder and a sphere, method of images. Navier- Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.
Mechanical Engineering
Paper I
1. Theory of Machines
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms. Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines,  Linear  vibration  analysis  of  mechanical  systems  (single  degree  and  two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.
2. Mechanics of Solids :
Stress   and   strain   in  two   dimensions.   Principal   stresses   and   strains,   Mohr's construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and an isotropy, Stress-strain relations, uniaxial  loading,  thermal  stresses.  Beams  :  Banding  moment  and  shear  force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, Thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns, Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Rotation discs. Shrink fits.
3. Engineering Materials :
Basic  concepts  on  structure  of solids,  Crystalline  materials,  Defects  in crystalline materials,  Alloys  and binary  phase  diagrams,  structure  and properties  of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite Materials, common applications of various materials.
4. Manufacturing Science :
Marchant's  force  analysis,  Taylor's  tool life equation,  machinability  and machining economics,   Rigid,  small  and  flexible   automation,   NC,  CNC.  Recent  machining methods- EDM, ECM and ultrasonics. Application of lasers and plasmas, analysis of forming  processes.   High  energy  rate  forming.  Jigs,  fixtures,  tools  and  gauges, Inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.
Production  Planning  and  Control,  Forecasting-Moving  average,  exponential smoothing, Operations sheduling; assembly line balancing. Product development. Breakeven analysis, Capacity planning. PERT and CPM.
Control   Operations   :   Inventory   control-ABC   analysis.   EOQ   model.   Materials
requirement planning. Job design, Job standards, work measurement, Quality management-Quality  control.  Operations  Research  : Linear  programming-Graphical and Simplex methods. Transportation  and assignment models. Single server queuing model. 
Value  Engineering  : Value  analysis,  for cost/value.  Total  quality  management  and forecasting techniques. Project management.
Computer  Organisation,  Flow charting.  Features  of Common  Computer  Languages- FORTRAN d Base III, Lotus 1-2-3 C and elementary programming.
Basic concept. Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodynamic  Laws, Gas equations, Clapeyron equation, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations.
2. I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion :
Spark Ignition and compression ignition engines, Four stroke engine and Two stroke engines, mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance.
Combustion  process  in S.I. and C.I. engines,  pre-ignition  detonation  in S.I. engine Diesel  knock  in  C.I.  engine.  Choice  of  engine  fuels,  Octane  and  Cetane  ratings. Alternate fuels Carburration and Fuel injection, Engine emissions and control. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric  air requirements  and excess air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and lower calorific values and their measurements.
One and two dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free convection. Heat exchangers.  Fundamentals  for diffusive and connective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non black surfaces, Network Analysis. Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls. Properties and choice of refrigerant,  Refrigeration  Systems  and components,  psychometrics,  comfort  indices, cooling loading calculations, solar refrigeration.
Continuity, momentum and Energy Equations. Adiabatic and Isentropic flow, Fanno lines, Raylegh lines. Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors, Flow through   turbo-machine    blade,   cascades,   centrifugal   compressor.   Dimensional analysis and modelling. Selection of site for steam, hydro, nuclear and stand-by power plants, selection base and peak load power plants Modern High pressure, High duty boilers,  Draft  and  dust  removal  equipment,  Fuel  and  cooling  water  systems,  heat balance, station and plant heat rates, operation  and maintenance  of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power generation.
Paper I Section-A
1. Classical Mechanics
(a) Particle dynamics:
Centre  of  mass  and  laboratory  coordinates  conservation   of  linear  and  angular momentum.  The  rocket  equation.  Rutherford  scattering,  Galilean  transformation, inertial  and  non-inertial  frames,  rotating  frames,  centrifugal  and  Coriolis  forces, Foucault pendulum.
(b) System of particles:
Constraints,  degrees  of freedom,  generalized  coordinates  and  moments.  Lagrange's equation and applications to linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum and central force problems. Cyclic coordinates, Hamiltonian Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle.
(c) Rigid body dynamics:
Eulerian  angles,  inertia  tensor,  principal  moments  of  inertia.  Euler's  equation  of motion of a rigid body, force-free motion of a rigid body, Gyroscope.
2. Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical Optics
(a) Special Relativity:
Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications. Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass- energy  relation,  simple  applications  to  a decay  process.  Minkowski  diagram,  four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of equations of physics.
(b) Waves: 
Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats. Stationary  waves in a string. Pulses and wave packets. Phase and group velocities. Reflection and Refraction from Huygens' principle.
(c) Geometrical Optics:
Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optic-thin  lens  formula,  nodal  planes,  system  of  two  thin  lenses,  chromatic  and spherical aberrations.
3. Physical Optics:
(a) Interference:
Interference  of light-Young's  experiment,  Newton's  rings, interference  by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer. Holography and simple applications.
(b) Diffraction:
Fraunhofer  diffraction-single  slit,  double  slit,  diffraction  grating,  resolving  power. Fresnel diffraction: - half-period zones and zones plates. Fresnel integrals. Application of Cornu's spiral to the analysis of diffraction at a straight edge and by a long narrow slit. Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern.
(c) Polarisation and Modern Optics:
Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarised light. Double refraction, quarter  wave  plate.  Optical  activity.  Principles  of  fibre  optics  attenuation;  pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion, single mode fibres. Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients. Ruby and He-Ne lasers. Characteristics of laser  light-spatial  and  temporal  coherence.  Focussing  of  laser  beams.  Three-level scheme for laser operation. 

4. Electricity and Magnetism:
(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics:
Laplace and Poisson  equations  in electrostatics  and their applications.  Energy of a system of charges, multiple expansion of scalar potential. Method of images and its applications.  Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external   field.   Dielectrics,   polarisation.   Solutions   to  boundary-value   problems- conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field. Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere. Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
(b) Current Electricity:
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law. Self-and mutual-inductances.  Mean and r.m.s. values in AC circuits. LR CR and   LCR   circuits-series   and   parallel   resonance.   Quality   factor.   Principal   of transformer.
5. Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation: (a) Electromagnetic Theory:
Displacement current and Maxwell's equations. Wave equations in vacuum, Pointing theorem.  Vector  and  scalar  potentials.  Gauge  invariance,  Lorentz  and  Coulomb gauges.   Electromagnetic   field  tensor,   covariance   of  Maxwell's   equations.   Wave equations  in isotropic  dielectrics,  reflection  and  refraction  at the boundary  of two dielectrics. Fresnel's relations. Normal and anomalous dispersion. Rayleigh scattering. (b) Blackbody radiation:
Balckbody  radiation  ad  Planck  radiation  law-Stefan-Boltzmann  law,  Wien displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law. Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,. Planck temperature and Planck energy.
6. Thermal and Statistical Physics :
(a) Thremodynamics:
Laws of thermodynamics,  reversible  and irreversible  processes,  entropy. Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy change. Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential. van der Waals equation of state of a real gas,   critical   constants.   Maxwell-Boltzman   distribution   of   molecular   velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition  and virial theorems. Dulong-Petit,  Einstein, and Debye's  theories  of  specific  heat  of  solids.  Maxwell  relations  and  applications. 
Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics:
Saha ionization formula. Bose-Einstein condensation. Thermodynamic behavior of an ideal  Fermi  gas,  Chandrasekhar  limit,  elementary  ideas  about  neutron  stars  and pulsars. Brownian motion as a random walk, diffusion process. Concept of negative temperatures. 

1. Quantum Mechanics I :

Wave-particle duality. Schroedinger equation and expectation values. Uncertainty principle.   Solutions   of  the  one-dimensional   Schroedinger   equation   free  particle (Gaussian  wave-packet),  particle  in a box, particle  in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator.  Reflection  and  transmission  by  a  potential  step  and  by  a  rectangular barrier. Use of WKB formula for the life-time calculation in the alpha-decay problem.
2. Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic Physics:
(a) Quantum Mechanics II:
Particle in a three dimensional  box, density of states, free electron theory of metals. The angular  momentum  problem.  The hydrogen  atom.  The spin half problem  and properties of Pauli spin matrices.
(b) Atomic Physics:
Stern-Gerlack   experiment,   electron   spin,  fine  structure   of  hydrogen   atom.  LS coupling, J-J coupling. Spectroscopic notation of atomic states. Zeeman effect. Frank- Condon principle and applications.
3. Molecular Physics:
Elementary   theory  of  rotational,   vibrational   and  electronic   spectra  of  diatomic molecules.   Raman   effect  and  molecular   structure.   Laser  Raman   spectroscopy. Importance  of neutral hydrogen  atom, molecular  hydrogen  and molecular  hydrogen ion   in  astronomy   Fluorescence   and   Phosphorescence.   Elementary   theory   and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
4. Nuclear Physics:
Basic nuclear properties-size,  binding energy, angular momentum,  parity, magnetic moment.  Semi-empirical  mass  formula  and  applications.  Mass  parabolas.  Ground state of a deuteron magnetic moment and non-central forces. Meson theory of nuclear forces.  Salient  features  of nuclear  forces.  Shell  model  of the  nucleus-success  and limitations. Violation of parity in beta decay. Gamma decay and internal conversion. Elementary   ideas  about  Mossbauer   spectroscopy.   Q-value  of  nuclear  reactions. Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars. Nuclear reactors.
5. Particle Physics & Solid State Physics:
(a) Particle Physics:
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Conservation laws. Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces. Physics of neutrinos.
(b) Solid State Physics:
Cubic crystal structure. Band theory of solids-conductors, insulators and   semi- conductors. Elements of superconductivity,  Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications. Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
6. Electronics :
Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors-p-n-p  and n-p-n transistors.  Amplifiers  and oscillators. Op-amps. FET, JFET and MOSFET. Digital electronics-Boolean  identities, De; Morgan's laws, Logic gates and truth tables, Simple logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.
Probability :
Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable  function,  distribution  function  of a random  variable,  discrete  and 
continuous-type   random   variable   probability   mass  function,   probability   density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence  of a sequence of random variable  in distribution,  in probability,  in p-th mean  and almost  everywhere,  their criteria and inter-relations, Borel-Cantelli lemma, Chebyshev's and Khinchine's weak laws of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and Kolmogorov's theorems, Glivenko-Cantelli theorem, probability generating function, characteristic function, inversion  theorem,  Laplace transform,  related uniqueness  and continuity  theorems, determination  of distribution  by its moments.  Linderberg  and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions, their inter- relations and limiting cases, simple properties of finite Markov chains.
Statistical Inference:
Consistency,  unbiasedness,   efficiency,  sufficiency,  minimal  sufficiency,  complete- ness, ancillary statistic, factorization theorem, exponential family of distribution and its  properties,   uniformly  minimum   variance  unbiased  (UMVU)  estimation,   Rao- Blackwell  and  Lehmann-Scheffe   theorems,  Cramer-Rao  inequality  for  single  and several-parameter  family of distributions, minimum variance bound estimator and its properties, modifications and extensions of Cramer-Rao inequality, Chapman-Robbins inequality,  Bhattacharyya's  bounds,  estimation  by methods  of moments,  maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square and modified minimum chi-square, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of asymptotic efficiency, idea of prior and posterior distributions, Bayes’ estimators.
Non-randomised  and randomised  tests, critical function, MP tests, Neyman-Pearson lemma,  UMP tests, monotone  likelihood  ratio, generalised  Neyman-Pearson  lemma, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single and several-parameter  families of distributions, likelihood rotates and its large sample properties, chi-square goodness of fit test and its asymptotic distribution.
Confidence  bounds and its relation  with tests, uniformly  most accurate  (UMA) and
UMA unbiased confidence bounds.
Kolmogorov's test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its consistency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov  two-sample test, run  test,  Wilcoxon-Mann-Whiltney   test  and  median  test,  their  consistency   and asymptotic normality.
Wald's SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions, Wald's fundamental identity,
sequential estimation.
Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis :
Linear  statistical  models,  theory  of least squares  and analysis  of variance,  Gauss- Markoff theory, normal equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of significance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in one-way, two-way and three-way classified data, regression analysis, linear regression, curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations, regression diagnostics and sensitivity analysis, calibration problems, estimation  of  variance  and  covariance  components,  MINQUE  theory,  multivariate normal   distribution,   Mahalanobis   D2   and   Hotelling's   T2   statistics   and   their applications and properties, discriminant analysis, canonical correlations, one-way MANOVA, principal component analysis, elements of factor analysis.
Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments:
An outline of fixed-population  and super-population  approaches, distinctive features of finite population sampling, probability sampling designs, simple random sampling with and without replacement, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and its efficacy  for structural  populations,  cluster  sampling,  two-stage  and multi-stage sampling, ratio and regression, methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables,  two-phase  sampling,  probability  proportional  to  size  sampling  with  and without  replacement,  the  Hansen-Hurwitz   and  the  Horvitz-Thompson   estimators, non-negative  variance estimation  with reference to the Horvitz-Thompson  estimator, non-sampling errors, Warner's randomized response technique for sensitive characteristics. 
Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial designs
: 2n, 32 and 33, confounding  in factorial  experiments,  split-plot  and simple lattice designs. 

I. Industrial Statistics
Process and product control, general theory of control charts, different types of control charts for variables and attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum chart, V-mask,  single, double, multiple  and sequential  sampling  plans for attributes,  OC, ASN, AOQ and ATI curves, concepts of producer's and consumer's risks, AQL, LTPD and AOQL, sampling plans for variables, use of Dodge-Romig  and Military Standard tables.
Concepts of reliability, maintainability and availability, reliability of series and parallel systems  and  other  simple  configurations,  renewal  density  and  renewal  function, survival models (exponential),  Weibull, lognormal,  Rayleigh, and bath-tub),  different types of redundancy  and use of redundancy  in reliability improvement,  problems in life-testing, censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.
II. Optimization Techniques:
Different,  types  of models  in Operational  Research,  their construction  and general methods   of  solution,   simulation   and  Monte-Carlo   methods,   the  structure   and formulation  of linear programming  (LP) problem, simple LP model and its graphical solution,  the simplex  procedure,  the two-phase  method  and the M-technique  with artificial variables, the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis,  transportation  and  assignment  problems,  rectangular  games,  two-person zero-sum games, methods of solution (graphical and algerbraic).
Replacement  of  failing  or  deteriorating  items,  group  and  individual  replacement
policies,  concept  of  scientific  inventory  management  and  analytical  structure  of inventory  problems,  simple  models  with deterministic  and stochastic  demand  with and without lead time, storage models with particular reference to dam type. Homogeneous   discrete-time   Markov  chains,  transition  probability  matrix,  classi- fication  of  states  and  ergodic  theorems,   homogeneous   continuous-time   Markov chains, Poisson process, elements of queueing theory, M/M/1, M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.
Solution of statistical  problems  on computers  using well known statistical  software
packages like SPSS.
III. Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics:
Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components, Box-Jenkins method, tests for stationery of series, ARIMA models and determination  of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting.
Commonly   used   index   numbers-Laspeyre's,   Paashe's   and   Fisher's   ideal   index
numbers,  chain-base  index  number  uses  and limitations  of index  numbers,  index number  of  wholesale  prices,  consumer  price  index  number,  index  numbers  of agricultural  and industrial  production,  tests, for index numbers like proportionality test, time-reversal  test, factor-reversal  test, circular test and dimensional  invariance test.
General linear model, ordinary least squares and generalised least squires methods of estimation,     problem    of    multicollinearity,     consequences     and    solutions    of multicollinearity,    autocorrelation    and   its   consequences,    heteroscedasticity    of disturbances   and  its  testing,   test  for  independence   of  disturbances,   Zellner's seemingly   unrelated   regression   equation   model  and  its  estimation,   concept   of structure and model for simultaneous  equations, problem of identification-rank  and order conditions of identifiability, two-stage least squares method of estimation. Present   official   statistical   system   in  India   relating   to  population,   agriculture, industrial  production,  trade  and  prices,  methods  of collection  of official  statistics, their  reliability   and  limitation   and  the  principal   publications   containing   such statistics,  various  official  agencies  responsible  for  data  collection  and  their  main functions. 
IV. Demography and Psychometry:
Demographic  data  from  census,  registration,  NSS  and  other  surveys,  and  their limitation  and  uses,  definition,  construction  and  uses  of  vital  rates  and  ratios, measures  of  fertility,  reproduction  rates,  morbidity  rate,  standardized  death  rate, complete and abridged life tables, construction  of life tables from vital statistics and census returns, uses of life tables, logistic and other population growth curves, fitting a  logistic  curve,  population  projection,  stable  population  theory,  uses  of  stable population and quasi-stable population techniques in estimation of demographic parameters,  morbidity  and  its  measurement,  standard  classification  by  cause  of death, health surveys and use of hospital statistics.
Methods  of standardisation  of scales and tests, Z-scores,  standard  scores,   scores,
percentile scores, intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses, validity of test scores and its determination, use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry.
1. Non-chordata and chordata :
(a) Classification and relationship of various phyla upto sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata;   Protostomes   and  Deuterostomes,   Bilateralia   and  Radiata;  Status  of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction;  evolution of sex; General features
and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
(c) Porifera : Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
(d) Coelenterata  : Polymorphism,  defensive  structures  and  their  mechanism;  coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes : Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of  Fasciola
and Taenia and their relation to human.
(f)  Nemathelminthes   :  General  features,  life  history  and  parasitic  adaptation  of
Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to human.
(g) Annelida : Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
(h) Arthropoda : Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in
arthropods  (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification  of mouth parts in insects (cockroach,  mosquito,  housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis  in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees). (i) Mollusca : Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata : Feeding, respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
(k)  Protochordata   :  Origin   of  chordates;   general   features   and   life  history   of
Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces : Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
(m) Amphibia : Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia : Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.
(o) Aves : Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
(p)  Mammalia   :  Origin  of  mammals;   dentition;   general  features   of  egg  laying mammals, pouched-mammals,  aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other   hormone   producing   structures   (pituitary,   thyroid,   parathyroid,   adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and
its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urinogenital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear). 

1. Ecology :
Section- B 
(a) Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact;
ecological succession, biomes and ecotones. 
(b) Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
(c)  Conservation   of  natural   resources-   mineral   mining,   fisheries,   aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); sustainable production in agriculture integrated pest management.
(d)  Environmental  biodegradation;  pollution  and  its  impact  on  biosphere  and  its
II. Ethology :
(a)  Behaviour  :  Sensory  filtering,  responsiveness,  sign  stimuli,  learning,  instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b)  Role  of  hormones  in  drive;  role  of  pheromones  in  alarm  spreading;  crypsis,
predator  detection,   predator   tactics,  social  behaviour   in  insects  and  primates;
courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine stickleback and birds).
(c)  Orientation,   navigation,   homing;   biological   rhythms;   biological   clock,   tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour.
III. Economic Zoology :
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
(b)  Major   infectious   and   communicable   diseases   (small   pox,   plague,   malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c)  Cattle  and  livestock  diseases,  their  pathogens  (helminthes)  and  vectors  (ticks,
mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).
(d)  Pests  of  sugar  cane  (Pyrilla  perpusiella),  oil  seed  (Achaea  janata)  and  rice
(Sitophilus oryzae).
IV. Biostatistics : Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one- way & two-way F-test).
V. Instrumental methods :
(a)   Spectrophotometry,    flame   photometry,   Geiger-Muller    counter,   scintillation counting.
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). 

I. Cell Biology :
PAPER-II Section-A 
(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles(nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria,  Golgi bodies, endoplasmic  reticulum,  ribosome’s  and Iysosomes),  cell division  (mitosis  and meiosis),  mitotic  spindle  and mitotic  apparatus,  chromosome movement.
(b) Watson-Crick  model of DNA, replication  of DNA, protein synthesis,  transcription
and transcription factors.
II. Genetics
a) Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophila, nematodes and human.
(c)  Mendel's  laws  of  inheritance,  recombination,  linkage,  linkage  maps,  multiple alleles, citron concept; genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis : radiation and chemical.
(e) Cloning  technology,  plasmids  and cosmids  as vectors,  transgenic,  transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
(f) Regulation and gene expression in pro-and eukaryotes.
(g) Signal transduction; pedigreeanalysis; congenital diseases in human.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA finger-printing.
III. Evolution
(a) Origin of life
(b)  Natural  selection,  role  of  mutation  in  evolution,  mimicry,  variation,  isolation, speciation.
(c) Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and human.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg Law, causes of change in gene frequency.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.
IV. Systematics 
(a) Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.

I. Biochemistry
(a) Structure  and role of carbohydrates,  fats, lipids, proteins,  amino acids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol.
(b) Glycolysis  and Krebs cycle, oxidation  and reduction,  oxidative  phosphorylation;
energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP-its structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function. (d)  Enzymes  :  types  and  mechanisms  of  action;  immunoglobulin  and  immunity; vitamins and coenzymes.
(e) Bioenergetics.
II Physiology (with special reference to mammals)
(a) Composition  and constituents  of blood; blood groups  and Rh factor in human; coagulation,   factors  and  mechanism   of  coagulation;   acid-base   balance,  thermo regulation.
(b) Oxygen  and  carbon  dioxide  transport;  haemoglobin  : constituents  and  role  in
(c)  Nutritive  requirements;  role  of  salivary  glands,  liver,  pancreas  and  intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
(d) Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
(f)     Neuron,     nerve     impulse-its     conduction     and     synaptic     transmission;
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in human.
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(I) Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.
III. Developmental Biology
(a)  Differentiation   from  gamete   to  neurula   stage;   dedifferentiation;   metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis  and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placenation in mammals.
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of
metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Baer's law; evo-devo concept.


INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CANDIDATES FOR FILLING ONLINE APPLICATIONS Candidates     are    required     to    apply    online    by    using    the    website www.upsconline.nic.in.
Salient features of the system to online Applications Form are given hereunder:
1.       Detailed  instructions  for  filling  up  Online  Applications  are  available  on the above mentioned website.
2.       Candidates   will   be   required   to   complete   the   Online   Application   Form containing  two stages viz. Part-I and Part-II as per the instructions  available  in the above mentioned site through drop down menu.
3. The candidates are required to pay a fee of Rs.100/- (Rupees One Hundred Only) [except/SC/ST  candidates and those specified in Note-2 of Point 4(Fee) of the Notice who are exempted from payment of fee] either by depositing the money in any branch of SBI by cash, or by using net banking facility of State Bank of India or by using any Visa/Master/RuPay  Credit/Debit Card.
4.       Before   start   filling   up   Online   Application,   a  candidate   must   have   his
photograph  and signature  duly scanned  in the .jpg format  in such a manner that each file should not exceed 300 KB each and must not be less than 50 KB in size for the photograph and signature.
5.       A candidate  must have his/her Matriculation  Certificate  ready prior to filling
up  his/her  application  form.    The  details  viz.  Candidate’s  Name,  Father’s  Name, 
Mother’s Name & Date of Birth to be filled in Online Application Form of the candidate should match exactly with particulars mentioned in the Matriculation Certificate.
6.       In addition  to this, candidate  should  also have  details  of one photo  ID viz.
Aadhar  Card/Vote  Card/PAN  Card/Passport/Driving   Licence/Any  other  photo  ID Card issued by the State/Central Government.   The details of this photo ID will have to be provided  by the candidate  while filling up the online  application  form.   The candidates  will have to upload a scanned  copy of the Photo ID whose details have been provided in the online application by him/her.    This photo ID will be used for all future  referencing  and the candidate  is advised  to carry this ID while appearing for Examination/Personality  Test.
7.       The Online Applications  (Part  I and  II) can  be  filled  from  02nd   Febru ary,
2022 to 22nd  February, 2022 till 6:00 PM.
8.       Applicants  should avoid submitting  multiple  applications.  However,  if due to any unavoidable circumstances  any applicant submits multiple applications then he must ensure that the applications with higher RID is complete in all respects.
9.       In  case  of  multiple  applications,  the  applications  with  higher  RID  shall  be
entertained  by the Commission  and fee paid against one RID shall not be adjusted against any other RID.
10.     The  applicants  must  ensure  that  while  filling  their  Application  Form, they are providing their valid and active e-mail Ids as the Commission may use electronic mode  of communication  while  contacting  them at difference  stages  of examination process.
11.     The  applicants  are  advised  to  check  their  e-mails  at  regular  intervals  and ensure that the email address ending with @nic.in are directed to their inbox folder and not to the SPAM folder or any other folder.
12.     Candidates  are  strongly  advised  to  apply  Online  well  in  time  without
waiting for the last date for submission of online application.


1. Candidates are advised to go through the instructions carefully before filling up the request for withdrawal of application.
2.  The  Commission   has  provided   the  withdrawal   facility  from  01.03.2022   to
07.03.2022  (till 6.00 PM) to those  candidates  who do not want to appear  at this
3.  Candidates  are  advised  to  provide  the  details  of  registered  application  with registration-id  which was completed and submitted finally. There is no provision for withdrawing of incomplete applications.
4. Before making the request for withdrawal,  candidate must ensure that they have
access to the registered mobile number and email-id which were provided by them at the time of submission of application. Separate OTPs will be sent by the Commission on  the  registered  mobile  number  and  email-id.  Request  for  withdrawal  will  be accepted only after it is confirmed
by validating the OTP details sent on candidate’s mobile and email-id.  Such OTPs will be valid for 30 Minutes only.
5. Request for generating OTP for withdrawal of application will be accepted only till
5.30 PM on 07.03.2022.
6. If a candidate  has  submitted  more  than  one  application  form  then  the  higher registration-id  of Application (latest) will be considered for withdrawal and all earlier applications will be treated as cancelled automatically.
7. After the final acceptance  of the request for online withdrawal  of application,  the
candidate must print the authenticated receipt. Once application has been withdrawn by the candidate, it cannot be revived in future.
8. UPSC has no provision to refund any fee amount paid by candidates, so in case of successful withdrawal of application the fees will not be refunded.
9. On successful  completion  of withdrawal  of application,  an auto-generated  email and  SMS  will  be sent  on  candidate’s  registered  email-id  and  mobile.  In case  any candidate  has not submitted  the request for withdrawal  of application  he/she may contact UPSC on email-id: upscsoap@nic.in immediately. 
10.   Candidates  are advised  not to share the OTPs received  on email and SMS to anybody.

Appendix III
Special Instruction to candidates for objective type tests
1.      Articles permitted inside Examination Hall
Clip board or hard board (on which nothing is written), a good quality black ball pen for making responses on the  Answer Sheet.   Answer Sheet and sheet for rough work will be supplied by the invigilator.

2.       Articles not permitted inside Examination Hall
Do not bring into the Examination  Hall any article  other than those  specified above e.g. books, notes, loose sheets, electronic or any other type of calculators, mathematical and drawing instruments, Log Tables, stencils of maps, slide rules, Test Booklets, rough sheets pertaining to earlier session(s), etc.
Mobile phones,  bluetooth  or  any other  communication devices are  not
allowed  inside  the  premises  where  the  examination  is being  conducted. Any infringement of these instructions shall entail disciplinary  action including ban from  future examinations.   Candidates are advised in their own  interest  not  to  bring  any  of  the  banned  items  including  mobile phones, to the venue of the examination, as arrangements for safekeeping cannot be assured.

3.   Penalty for wrong Answers (in Objective Type Papers)
(i)  There  are four  alternatives  for the answer  to every  question.    For each
question for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate,  one third  (0.33)  of the  marks  assigned  to that  question  will  be deducted  as penalty.

(ii)  If a candidate  gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happens to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.

(iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there
will be no penalty for that question.

4.          Unfair means strictly prohibited
No candidates shall copy from the papers of any other candidate nor permit his papers to be copied nor give nor attempt to give not obtain nor attempt to obtain irregular assistance of any description.

5.     Conduct in Examination Hall
No candidates should misbehave in any manner or create disorderly scene in the Examination Hall or harass the staff employed by the Commission for the conduct of the examination.  Any such misconduct will be severely penalised.

6.           Answer Sheet Particulars
(i) Write in black ball pen your Centre and subject followed by Test Booklet series (in bracket), subject  code and roll number at the appropriate space provided on the Answer Sheet at the top.  Also encode your booklet series (A, B, C or D as the case may be),  subject  code and roll number  with black ball pen in the circles provided  for the purpose in the Answer Sheet.   The guidelines  for writing the above particulars and encoding the above particulars are given in Annexure.  In case the booklet series is not printed on the Test Booklet  or Answer Sheet is unnumbered, please report immediately to the invigilator and get the Test Booklet/Answer Sheet replaced.

(ii)    Candidates      should     note   that   any   omission/mistake/discrepancy          in
encoding/filling   of details  in the  OMR  answer  sheet,  especially   with  regard to   Roll   Number   and  Test Booklet  Series  Code,  will render  the answer  sheet liable for rejection.

(iii)   Immediately   after   commencement     of  the   examination    please   check   that
the    Test  Booklet  supplied  to  you  does  not  have  any  unprinted  or  torn  or missing  pages or items etc. If so, get it replaced  by a complete  Test Booklet  of the same series and subject. 

7. Do not write your name or anything  other than the specific items of information asked for, on the Answer Sheet/Test  Booklet/sheet for rough work.

8.     Do not fold or mutilate or damage or put any extraneous marking in the Answer
Sheet.  Do not write anything on the reverse of the Answer Sheet.

9. Since the Answer Sheets will be evaluated on computerised machines, candidates should exercise due care in handling and filling up the Answer Sheets.    They should use black ball pen only to darken the circles. For writing in boxes, they should use black ball pen.  Since the entries made by the candidates by darkening  the  circles  will  be  taken  into  account  while  evaluating  the Answer Sheet on computerised  machines, they should make these entries very carefully and accurately.   The candidate must mark responses in the Answer Sheet with good quality black ball pen.

10.       Method of marking   answers
In the  "OBJECTIVE TYPE" of examination, you  do not write  the  answers.   For each question (hereinafter referred to as "Item") several suggested answers (hereinafter  referred  to  as  "Responses")  are  given.  You  have  to  choose  one response  to  each  item.  The  question  paper  will  be  in  the  Form  of  TEST BOOKLET.  The  booklet  will  contain item  bearing numbers 1, 2,  3 etc.  Under each item,  Responses marked (a), (b), (c),, ( d) will be given.  Your task will be to choose  the  correct  response.   If you  think there   is  more  than   one   correct response,  then  choose  what  you  consider  the  best response.

In any case, for each  item you are to select  only one response.   If you select
more  than  one  response,  your  response  will  be  considered  wrong.    In  the Answer Sheet, Serial Nos.  from 1      to  160  are  printed.  Against each  numbers, there are circles marked (a), (b), (c) and (d). After  you have  read each  item in the Test Booklet and decided which one of the given responses is correct or the best, you have to mark your response by completely blackening to indicate your response.
Ink pen or pencil should not be used for blackening the  circle on the Answer

For example, if the correct answer to item 1    is (b), then the circle containing the letter (b) is to be completely blackened with black ball pen as shown below :- Example   :   (a)  •   (c)   (d)
11.    Entries in Scannable Attendance List
Candidates  are required  to fill in the  relevant  particulars  with  black  ball pen only against their columns in the Scannable  Attendance List, as given below :-
i)  Blacken the circle (P) under the column (Present/Absent)
ii)  Blacken  the  relevant  circle  for  Test  Booklet  Series  iii)  Write  Test  Booklet
Serial No.
iv)  Write  the  Answer  Sheet  serial  No.  and  also  blacken  the  corresponding circles below
v) Append signature in the relevant column

12. Please  read and abide  by the instructions on the cover of Test Booklet.  If any candidate  indulges  in disorderly  or improper  conduct, he will  render  himself liable for disciplinary  action and/or imposition of a penalty as the Commission may deem fit.

13.  The candidates are not allowed to leave the Examination Hall before the expiry of prescribed  time period of the examination.
How  to  fill  in the  Answer Sheet of  objective type tests in  the
Examination Hall
Please follow these instructions very  carefully. You may note that since the Answer  Sheets  are  to  be  evaluated  on  machine, any  violation  of  these instructions  may  result  in  reduction  of  your  score  for  which  you  would yourself be responsible.
Before you mark your responses on the Answer Sheet, you will have to fill
in various particulars in it. 

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